Criminal Justice Midterm

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Series of midterm questions.

Crime and justice are issues of public policy. Why

They are addressed by the government.

Who argues that we need to focus more upon "justice" not "criminal" in the system of criminal justice?

Reiman

Reiman urges policies that...

Establish economic and social justice.

According to the text, which of the following groups favor stricter enforcement of the law?

Conservatives

In which of Packer's models would the adversarial system be most likely used?

Due process.

The goals of controlling crime and protecting the rights of individuals are...

Difficult to achieve

A model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes efficiency, speed, and finality and the capacity to apprehend, try, convict, and dispose of a high proportion of offenders is called the...

Crime control model

A model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes the adversarial process, the rights of defendants, and the formal decision making procedures is called the...

Due process model

Which of the following are values that must be respected in a democracy by the police, prosecutors, judges, and correctional officials?

All of these.

Crimes, such as murder or assault, that are traditionally "wrong in themselves" are called...

Mala in se

Crimes, such as gambling or prostitution, that re not "wrong in themselves" but are prohibited by government are called...

Mala prohibita

Criminal acts often termed "street crime" or "ordinary crime" that are the least profitable and least protected are called...

Visible crime

An example of a visible crime is...

Murder.

Crimes committed in the context of a legal business or profession are called...

Occupational crime

An example of an occupational crime is...

Price fixing.

Historically associated with images or certain ethnic groups, this framework within criminal acts are committed is called...

Organized crime.

Offenses against morality involving a willing and private exchange of goods and services that are in strong demand, but are illegal are called...

Victimless crimes.

Criminal acs by either the government, or against the government, that are carried out for ideological purposes are called...

Political crime

An example of a political crime is...

Espionage

According to Cole and Smith, which is not an explanation for the recent drop in both violent and property crime...

People are more educated about the societal costs of crime.

Hate crimes are...

Violent crimes aimed at individuals of a particular race, ethnicity, sexuality, or religion.

The term referring to the idea that much more crime occurs than is reported to police is called...

Dark figure of crime.

Where does the U.S. rank in homicide rates among industrialized nations?

First

How do Cole and Smith describe the crime situation in Iceland?

Little crime

When compared to the United States, Icelandic crime rates are...

Extremely low

A statistical summary of crimes reported to the police is known as the...

UCR

According to the chart below, which violent crime are people least likely to report?

Simple assault

A source of crime data from interviews conducted to gather on unreported as well as reported crimes is called...

NCVS

Why does the NCVS not measure homicide?

You cannot survey victims of homicide

Which is TRUE, concerning how we measure crime?

The UCR and NCVS blur and distort measurement because of differences in how crime is measured by each.

According to the lifestyle exposure model, who is most likely to be victimized because of where they live and how they spend their leisure time?

Young black males.

Which is TRUE concerning race and crime victims?

African-Americans and other minorities are most likely to be victims of violent crimes.

According to the Lifestyle Exposure Model, which of the following does not affect victimization?

Self-control.

Which of the following is more closely linked to exposure to crime?

Living in a city.

Crime in poor areas is...

We cannot draw any conclusions because others factors are also responsible.

The fraction of violent crimes committed against women by acquaintances and relatives is...

Two-thirds.

The intangible cost of crime (pain, trauma, lost quality of life) are estimated to be...

450 billion

Which of the following is TRUE about the fear of crime?

Crime rates are decreasing and Americans are fearful of crime

The fear of crime is greatest in...

Urban areas

The fear of crime is fed by...

All of the above (TV, NEWS MEDIA, PERSONAL COMMUNICATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS)

Which of the following is not a main principle of classical criminology?

Punishment should be tailored to each individual person.

Which type of criminology used science to study the body, mind, and environment of the offender?

positivist

If a person is defined as criminogenic, this means that he/she...

Was born a criminal

Criminal behavior viewed as having been caused by a mental condition, a personality disturbance, or limited to intellect is the focus of...

Psychological explanations

What stage of life is most significant in Sigmund Freud's theory of personality?

Early childhood

Freud's psychoanalytic theory focuses upon...

Unconscious drives and forces explaining crimes.

Psychoanalytic theory explains criminal behavior as resulting upon...

underdeveloped or overdeveloped superego.

An explanation of criminal acts that argues being a member of a social group shapes behavior is called...

Sociological

A type of social process theory that stresses that social links to keep people in line with accepted norms is called...

control theory

The idea that any person regardless of education, class, or upbringing can become a criminal is called...

Social process theory

Who created hte theory of differential association?

Edwin Sutherland

Criminal activity where family and peers are primary influences is called...

Learning theory

What are the three types of social process theories?

Learning, control, and labeling

Which of the following theories involves the use of criminal law to control society's poor and have-nots?

social conflicts.

Which of the following argued that the women's movement increased the role of women in criminal activity?

Freda Alder

Prior to the 1970s, why was it assumed that women did not commit serious crimes?

Women were very dependent and nurturing.

In relation to men, women commit...

less crime

Most women criminals come from...

lower class families

In relation to men, women commit...

Significantly less crime.

Women's share of arrest is highest for which type of crime?

Larceny-theft

According to Cole and Smith, which following is NOT a goal of the criminal justice system?

dramatizing crime

Which of the following related to the goals of the criminal justice system is TRUE?

Decisions must be made that reflect legal, social, political, and moral values of society.

The concept of dividing power between a central (national) government and regional (state) governments is called...

Federalism

Which of the following administer prisons, jails, and other corrections facilities and programs?

All of the above

Which of the following is TRUE concerning the criminal justice system and the US constitution?

The US Constitution does not discuss the criminal justice system specifically.

The authority to make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts, using instead one's own judgement is referred to as...

discretion

A key concept in the criminal justice process involving the mutual transfer of resources among individual actors is called...

exchange

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of criminal justice system?

Independence of actors.

The determination of whether or not a defendant is guilty is called...

Adjudication.

The United States has a...

Dual Court System

When a person is physically taken into custody, this is called a(n)...

Arrest

A "true bill" coming from a grand jury and charging a suspect with a specific crime is called a(n)...

Indictment

A court order issued by a judge authorizing police officers to make arrests or search premises is called a(n)...

Warrant

Most defendants whose charges are not dropped ultimately...

Plead guilty

The who is "key link between the police and the courts" because he/she considers the facts of the case and decides whether there is reasonable cause to believe an offense was committed is the...

Prosecutor

What layer of the criminal justice wedding cake involves celebrated cases that are highly unusual with great public attention resulting in a jury trial?

Top

What layer of the criminal wedding cake consists of misdemeanors?

Bottom

What layer of the criminal justice wedding cake consists of serious felonies?

High-middle

The criminal justice wedding cake shows that...

Different cases receive different kinds of treatment.

What layer of the criminal justice wedding cake deals with felonies of lesser concern?

Low-middle

The State of Michigan v. Christopher Jones illustrated...

The prosecutor's use of multiple charges to pressure/

A serious crime usually carrying a penalty of death or incarceration for more than one year is called a(n)...

Felony

According to Cole and Smith, which of the following is NOT an explanation for the racial and ethnic disparities that exist with the criminal justice system.?

Minorities are actually incarcerated at a lower rate and the media has created the disparity.

The inequality of treatment of one group bu the criminal justice system, compared to the treatment accorded other groups is called...

Disparities

Compared to whites, African-Americans and Hispanics are drawn into the criminal justice system at a...

Much higher rate

How much greater is the per capita incarceration rate for African-Americans as compared to whites?

Seven times as great

According to Cole and Smith, which of the following is an explanation for the racial and ethnic disparities that exist within the criminal justice system?

All of the above are explanations according to Cole and Smith.

Of all arrests, how many involve African-Americans?

One-third

Federal sentencing guidelines punish users of crack cocaine about one hundred times more harshly than users of powder cocaine. This fact reflects which of the textbook's explanations for racial disparities?

Racial insensitivity and unequal treatment in society can shape criminal justice policy.

The definitions of crimes and people eligible for punishment are spelled out in...

Substantive criminal law.

The processes followed by police, prosecutors, and judges as well as the rights possessed by suspects and defendants are defined by...

Procedural criminal law.

Laws and rules made by federal, state, and local agencies are called...

Administrative regulations.

An act can be deemed criminal if it could do harm that the law seeks to prevent. This is called an....

inchoate offense.

For an act to be a crime, the intent and the act must exist simultaneously. This is called...

Concurrence.

If a person has a guilty mind or a blameworthy state of mind, this describes the element of,,,

mens rea

Which of the following indicates theat fora crime to occur there must be an act of commission or omission by the accused?

actus rea

The elements of a crime consist of...

attendant circumstances, mens rea, and actus rea.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning Islamic and American criminal law?

They have major differences between them.

The phrase that distinguishes murder from nonnegligent manslaughter is:

malice afterthought

Punishments bade on Islamic law tend to be _____ punishments based on law in the United States.

More severe than

Which of the following is a necessary element in the definition of rape?

Force

A major exception to the mens rea principle is called....

Strict liability.

Entrapment occurs when:

A police officer entices a citizen to commit a crime.

When people break the law in order to save themselves or prevent a greater harm, they will likely use this defense in court:

necessity

The idea that insanity is caused by many factors, not all of which may be present in every case is called the...

Durham rule

Which of the following is TRUE about the insanity defense?

The insanity defense is rarely used by criminals

The test used by most states to determine insanity today is called the:

Right-from-wrong test

Which amendment protects privacy by barring unreasonable searches by police?

Fourtb

The right to a fair trial is found in the...

Sixth

Which Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court led a legal revolution that expanded the constitutional rights of criminal defendants?

Warren

Which of the following landmark US Supreme Court required courts to provide attorneys for poor defendants facing the death penalty?

Powell v. Alabama.

Which amendment contains a warrant clause?

Fourth

The double jeopardy clause is found in the...

Fifth Amendment

The privilege against self-incrimination is found in the...

Fifth Amendment

The right to counsel in felony cases was applied to the states in the landmark case of...

Gideon v. Wainwright

The right to a trial by jury is guaranteed by the...

Sixth Amendment

The right against cruel and unusual punishment is found in the...

Eighth Amendment

Which amendment requires that the amount of bail not be excessive?

Eighth Amendment

What can states do to expand criminal defendants' rights if the US Supreme Court will not protect such rights?

State courts can use their state constitutions to protect defendants' rights.

In old England, when groups of families agreed to uphold the law, keep order, and bring violators to a court, this was called the...

Frankpledge

In 1285, England developed a system in which individuals were chosen within each community to apprehend criminals. This was established by the....

Statute of Wincester

In London, police commissioners named after Sir Robert Peel were called....

Bobbies

Which historical era involved close ties between the police and local leaders of government?

The political era

The historical era of policing known as the political era occurred between...

1840-1920

The political era of policing was characterized by...

Hiring of officers through connections to elected officials

Which historical era was influenced by the Progressives?

The professional era

Which of the following is NOT an element of the model of professional policing?

The police force should be actively involved in politics

Which of the following was a leading advocate of professionalism within the police force?

O.W. Wilson

The community based model of policing occurred between...

!970-present

In their article entitled "Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety." James Wilson and George Kelling argued that police should work more on...

The little problems such as maintaining order.

When police arrest subway fare-beaters, loiters, and panhandlers, they are focusing upon....

Quality of life crimes

Throughout the United States, police are characterized by...

Fragmentation and a local orientation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation came to prominence under leadership of...

J. Edgar Hoover

Which of the following areas is not given emphasis by the FBI?

Blue collar crime

A police function that is a broad mandate to prevent behavior that disturbs the peace or involves face-to-face conflict is called...

Order maintenance

If police officers provide first aid, rescue animals, or help the homeless, this is an example of which police function?

Service

According to public opinion polls, which function is most important in the minds of citizens?

Law enforcement

Which of the following is TRUE concerning police policy?

Decisions about how police resources will be used affect who gets arrested.

Which of James Q. Wilson's styles of policing is marked by professionalism and emphasis on law enforcement?

Legalistic

What function are the police most likely to be providing in this image?

Order maintenance

In the final analysis, who decides who an officer should define and handle a situation involving the application of the law?

The officer on the scene

Which of the following is TRUE about the use of discretion by a police officer?

The closer the relationship between the alleged criminal and the victim, the more variable the use of discretion.

Studies of past police practices regarding domestic violence found that....

Police were less likely to intervene when wives were victimized by their husbands.

A strategy for addressing domestic violence that is supported by some research is...

make arrest in all cases

Highly publicized cases of women receiving injuries in the presence of police showed that

Police officers may face lawsuits if they do not assist a victim of domestic violence.

Which of the following best describes the relationship of police to minorities?

Difficult

Which of the following constitute "special populations"?

All of the above.

Which of the following racial group(s) views the police as treating racial groups fairly?

Whites

The recognition that the control of crime cannot rest solely with the police illustrates the idea of...

Community crime prevention

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