Introduction to Chemistry & Physics Midterm Exam Review

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Science

the process of discovering and explaining the order of things

Scientific Method

helps put investigation of questions into some type of order, formal/organized method for doing science

Hypothesis

a reasonable explanation of an observation, an educated guess

Who was punished by the church for their scientific belief?

Galileo

Do facts change in science?

Yes, in science facts change when new info is discovered

Scientific Theory

the synthesis of info that contains well tested and verified hypothesis about certain aspects of the world

Quantitative Measurements

- more easily backed up
- measuring data using #s give more proof to your answer

What happens if a scientist is dishonest with their data or fats?

Shunned by scientific community

Pseudoscience

ex: astrology
false science

Quantitative

denotes a quantity or how much is observed

Qualitative

denotes quality of what is observed

Inference

statement reasoned from an observation

Independent variables

changes that occur in an experiment that are directly caused by the experimenter

Dependent variables

changes that occur due to an independent variables

Controlled variable

anything else that could influence the dependent variable

1cm^3 =

1mL

length:

meter

mass:

gram

volume:

liter

1000 millimeters =

1 meter

100 centimeters =

1 meter

100 meters =

1 kilometer

Control setup

identical experiment without the variable to be tested; the original state of item to be experimented upon

Research

information gathered to support your hypothesis

Conclusion

the ending solution that has been found

Variable setup

setup that includes the factor to be tested

Problem

what you are trying to find out by preforming the experiment

Volume (Solid obj)

water level with solid added
- original water level

Giga

G
10^9
billion

Mega

M
10^6
million

Kilo

K
10^3 1,000
thousand

Centi

c
10^-2 .01
hundredth

Milli

m
10^-3 .001
thousandth

Micro

10^-6
millionth

Nano

n
10^-9
billionth

Density

mass per unit of volume of a substance

Density (formula)

Mass/Volume

Volume

mass/density
length x width x height
s^3

Mass

density x volume

chemistry

study of matter and the transformation it could undergo

matter

anything that has mass and occupies space

Basic research

understand how nature works

Applied research

dedicated to the development of useful products ad processes

The submicroscopic world is made up of

atoms and molecules

Submicroscopic means

cannot be seen with a microscope
(this includes atoms and molecules)

Molecules are made up of

atoms that makeup the fundamental unit of a material

Chemical change/reaction

atoms in a substance are rearranged to give a new substance having a new chemical identity

Chemical equation

representation of a chemical reaction

Chemical formula

symbols for the different elements and the ratio of each element

Chemical properties

a property that relates to how a substance changes its chemical identity

Compound

a material in which atoms of different elements are bonded to one another

Chemistry

study of matter and the transformations it can undergo

Elemental formula

atomic symbol and a numerical subscript to indicate the numer of atoms grouped together

Laws of Mass Conservation

matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction

Matter

anything that occupies space

Molecules

group of atoms that collectively make the fundamental unit of a material (i.e. water)

Physical Change (definition)

a change in which a substance changes its physical properties without changing its chemical identity

Physical Properties

any physical attribute of a substance, such as color, density, or hardness

Products

a new material formed in a chemical reaction, appearing after the arrow in a chemical equation

Reactants

a starting material in a chemical equation, appearing after the arrow in a chemical equation

Physical properties (examples)

color, hardness, density, phase(form of a substance), etc.

Chemical properties

Characteristics that can only be observed when one substance changes into a different substance.

What happens to the atoms during a chemical change?

the atoms rearrange to form a new material different from the starting material

Chemical bond

attraction between two atoms that hold them together

Phases of matter:

solid - definitine shape and volume
gas - no definite shape or volume
liquid - no definite shape, but definite volume
plasma (high energy) - can't be contained
freezing, melting, vaporization, condensation, sublimation

Element

collection of atoms
(one type of atom)

Elements combine to form

compounds

Compound:

more than one type of atom

Atomic Mass

the mass of an element's atom listed in the periodic table as an average value based on the relative abundance of the element's isotope

Atomic Nucleus

the dense, (+) charged center of every atom

Atomic Number

a count of the number of protons in the atomic nucleus

Atomic Symbol

an abbreviation for an element or atom

Electron

an extremely small, (-) charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus

Element

a fundamental material consisting of only one type of atom

Group

a vertical column in the periodic table, also known as a family of elements

Isotopes

atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

Mass Number

the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the atomic nucleus. Used primarily to identify isotopes.

Metal

an element that is shiny, opaque, malleable, and able to conduct electricity and heat

Metalloid

an element that exhibits some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals

Neutron

an electrically neutral subatomic particle of the atomic nucleus

Non-metal

neither a metal nor a metalloid, poor conductor of electricity and heat, may be transparent, not malleable or ductile

Nucleon

any subatomic particle found in the atomic nucleus (another name for protons and neutrons)

Period

a horizontal row in the periodic table

Periodic Table

a chart in which all known elements are organized by their properties

Periodic Trend

a chart in which all known elements are organized by their properties

Proton

a (+) charged subatomic particle of the atomic nucleus

Elements are organized in their periodic table by

their properties

Metals (electrons & location)

give up electrons
left side of periodic table

Nonmetals (electrons & location)

take electrons
right side of periodic table

valance electrons

any electron in the outer most energy level or shell of an atom

A period is a

row

A group is a

column

Which groups tell us how many valance electrons are in the group?

1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18

group 1

alkali metals

group 2

alkaline earth metals

group 17

halogens

When a metal combines with a halogen, what is formed?

The compound, salt

group 18

noble gases

Atoms get smaller moving from

left to right across any row or period

Atoms get larger moving

down a group because of an increase in occupied shells

Ionization energy

amount of energy required to pull an electron away from an atom

Which elements have the highest and lowest ionization energies?

highest: upper right
lowest: lower left

Protons =

Atomic #

Electrons =

number of protons

Neutrons =

Mass # - Protons

Atomic # =

# of protons

Mass # =

protons + neutrons

physical model

represents a large or small object shown at a convenient scale

conceptual model

represents a systems and helps use to predict how it behaves (i.e. Niels Bohr's planetary mode)

spectroscope

instrument used to observe the color components of any light source

atomic spectrum

the pattern of frequencies formed by a given element

What did Bohr reason about the orbits?

Bohr reasoned that orbit have different energy levels and that if an electron moves from one energy level to another it emits photons (particle of light).

Explain Bohr's planetary model?

it was a conceptual model
the electrons traveled around the nucleus in definite orbits (like the planets orbiting the sun)

What did the Bohr model predict?

X-ray frequencies that were later confirmed by experiment

Quantum hypothesis

light travels as a wave, but strikes a a particle

Photon

a particle of light

Quantum

the smallest unit of something

Principal quantum number n

an integer (#) that specifies the quantized energy level of an atomic orbital

shells

region of space where electrons may reside

Probability cloud (cloud model of the atom)

where the electrons may be found

Uncertainty principle (cloud model of the atom)

the electrons

The simplest type of purse substance

element

Each periodin the table begins on the left with a

highly active metal

Elements found on the left sight of periodic table are

metals

Elements that exist in nature as two atoms covalently bonded are called

diatomic

Elements in the same group have similar

properties

Quantum mechanics

behavior of submicroscopic particles

synthesis reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

decomposition reaction

(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance

double replacement reaction

when two compound reactants switch places in the product

catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

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