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Notable People in AP World

Shah Darius

Conquered Parts of northwestern India and made Ganhara a province of the Achaemenid Empire

Alexander the Great

Invaded the Persian empire in 327 BC

Chandragupta Maurya

founder of the Mauryan Empire

Ashoka

grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire

Charvakas

This sect believed that gods were figments of the imagination...

Buddha

An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. (180)

Jains

indian religion that there is no violence and they protect all living things

Cyrus the Great

king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire (circa 600-529 BC)

Darius

came to throne in 521 B.C. He reorganized the government to make it work better. He divided the empire into 20 provinces. Each was ruled by an official with the title of satrap.

Zoroastrianism

system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster

Zarathustra

Persian prophet who founded Zoroastrianism (circa 628-551 BC)

Xerxes

son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.

Justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

Basil II

revived the Byzantine Empire; "Bulgar Slayer"

Muhammad

the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)

Abu Bakr

first caliph after death of muhammad

Hijira

Journey Muhammad and his followers made, the journey that Muhammad, faced with the threat of murder, took from Mecca to Medina

Mecca

the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace

Medina

City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)

Sharia

body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life

Jizya

tax paid by Christians and Jews who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion

Abbasids

A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1250.

Tang Taizong

(627- 649) He reconquerored the northern and western land that China had since the decline of the Han Dynasty. He started the achievements of the Tang Dynasty.

Song Taizu

First Song dynasty emperor who reigned from 960-976 CE. He focused his rule on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts rather than on military affairs. Inaugurated bureaucracy of merit.

Ibn Battuta

Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. (p. 373)

Marco Polo

Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

Prince Henry the Navigator

(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.

Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

Line of Demarcation

Imaginary north to south line running down the middle of the Atlantic and granted Spain the west of the line and Portugal the east

Amerigo Vespucci

The italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him

Vasco de Balboa

Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama

Ponce De Leon

Explored Florida seeking gold (and maybe the Fountain of Youth)

Hernando de Soto

Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese explorer who reached the Philippines and circumnavigated the world

Junipero Serra

The leader of a group of Spanish missionaries who founded a chain of twenty-one missions beginning in 1769 at San Diego and stretching north of the San Francisco Bay. These missions gathered nomadic Indians into missions and taught them the values of Christianity.

Viceroy

A governor appointed by the king of Spain to run the colonies in the New World.

Conquistadors

spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain

Hammurabi

Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

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