What is the Germinal Period?
First 14 days after fertilization. Ends with implantatio. Has a 66% failure rate. Cells divide many times. Cannot detect pregnancy here.
What is the Embryonic Period?
Weeks 3 through 8. Starts with implantation. Embryo recieves nourishment. Basic body develops.
How much does a embryo weigh at 8 weeks?
1 gram, three paperclips and is about 1 inch.
What is the Fetal Period?
Week 9 to birth. Very rapid development. 1g - 3000g.
What happens in the 3rd months of the Fetal Period?
Sex organs develop, major systems are all present, first movement.
What happens during the 4th, 5th and 6th months?
Preparing to survive. Digestive, heart, and respiratory systems develop. Getting fat!
What is the Age of Viability?
22 Weeks (beginning of fourth month), fetus can survive in hospital (ICU).
Why is brain function vital?
Lower brain areas produce "automatic" functions - Breathing, sucking.
What is Synaptogenesis?
Synapse creation. "use it or lose it" - Neurons that form connections are nourished and live.
What happens in the last 3 Months?
Respiratory and cardio systems continue to prepare for life outside. Lots of movement (muscle training) Sleep/wake cycles develop. Lots of fat (maternal nutrition important).
What are Teratogens?
Substances or conditions that can cause prenatal damage. Some can alter brain development.
What are the factors of damage?
Timing, Amount, Genes.
What is LBW?
Low birth weight, less than 5 1/2 lbs. Grows too slowly or weighs less than normal. More common then 10 years ago. Second most common cause of neonatal death.
What is Preterm?
Birth occurs 3 or more weeks before standard 38 weeks.
What is Kangaroo Care?
Holding newborn against skin for at least an hour a day. Decreases infant stress. Increases suckling. Increases immune response.
What is the Threshold effect?
Level at which a substance becomes a toxin. I.E: Vitamin A.
What is the Interaction Effect?
Some teratogens when combined become more teoxic. I.E: Alcohol and Tobacco.
What is the Apgar Scale?
Five factors - Score of 7 or better = Normal, Score under 7 = Needs help breathing, Score under 4 = Needs urgent critical care.