US History Exam Review Semester One

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Chapter 6-7 define Melting Pot vs. Nativism

Melting pot was a blend of people from different racial backgrounds coexisting in the same country together. Nativisim is a bias toward natural-born Americans.

Chapter 6-7- Patronage

The giving of government jobs to others to help elect someone to office.

Transcontinential Railroad- Chapter 6-7

A railroad that streached from coast to coast in the US.

Ellis Island-Chapter 6-7

Stationed in New York, it was an immigration station for European immagrants that required a physical examination, an inspection of documents (passports). Immigrants also needed to have at least $ 25 on them and solomly swear they had never been convicted of felony in their homeland.

Angel Island

San Fransisco immigration station that mainly dealt with chinese immigrants. These immigrants went through abrasive questioning and often had to wait long periods of time before US admittance.

Urbanization

The movement and growth of cities in the US

Tenements

Housing that was shared by more than one family.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

An act that stated that large buisness could not monopolize free trade.

Trusts

...

Monopoly

The ownership of all compition within an industry.

Old Immigrants

Immigrants that came to the US from Ireland and England around 1830-1870 looking for religious freedom.

New Immigrants

Immigrants that came to the US during the time frame of 1870 through 1910. These immigrants were often from eastern Europe. These immigrants had no land to live on upon arriving in the US.

Iron/Steel

Produced by a method called the Bessemer process, the invention of Iron and steel created industries that boomed as the two products were often used as the framework for buildings.

Thomas Edison

Inventor of the light bulb that revolutionized many homes and buisnesses. He also created the very first research lab.

Alexander Graham Bell

Inventor of the telephone.

Andrew Carnegie

A big wig in the railroad industry. went from rags to riches as he got older and his rail company became stronger.

John Rockefeller

A true monopolizer, created a large corporation (Standard Oil) and had steady control of the oil industry.

William Vanderbilt

A railroad company owner that introduced the idea of consolidation.

George Pullman

A railroad car pioneer that made very famous railroad cars. Pullman also created a town in Ilinois that beared his namesake for workers of his railroad company. The Pullman town had a notoriety for creating very restricting rules for employees to follow after work hours.

Henry Bessemer

Inventor of the Bessemer process which turned iron into steel.

JP Morgan

A major banker/Robber Baron of his time. Monopolized Wall Street and steel industry.

Why Did Immigrants Come To The United States?

Many came to create a better lif for themselves in a new land and to escape the poverty of their homeland.

What policies did the Nativists want the government to pass?

...

What was the signfigance of Iron being turned to steel.

This was a signfigance as steel was used for the basis of buildings especially skyliners which were growing popular in metropolitan areas during this time period

What Were the biggest effects of urbanization?

The growth of US cities.

What were the biggest effects of the transcontinental railroad?

The ability to expand free trade to a wider audience.

Muckrakers

Journalists who wrote about buisness corruption and reported it back to the people. (think Upton Sinclair.)

Prohibition

The banning of alcohol/ alcoholic beverages in the US

Progressive Movement

A movement whose main purpose was to restore government power back in the people's hands.

Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelts reform plan that decided on equal chances for the public and the rich. (No special treatment based on money or anything else)

Pure Food and Drug Act

A law enacted in 1906 that stated that companies may not sell fraudulently labeled or non-labeled products to the public.

Conservationisim

The process of preserving some of the nations lands from man-made destruction.

The Jungle

A novel written in 1904 by muckraker Upton Sinclair that exposed corruption in the meatpacking industry.

Upton Sinclair

Muckraker; Author of the 1904 novel The Jungle.

William H. Taft

27th US president. He was a trustbuster that came after Theodore Roosevelt in the presidency. He was a Republican.

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president of the US. Created foodservice regulations, trustbuster, won nobel peace prize for Russo- Japanese war negotiation, creator of Square Deal, had Panama canal open during his presidency.

Woodrow Wilson

Theodore Roosevelts Succsessor he was a democrat, Clayton Anti Trust Act was the highlight of his presidency

W.E.B. Dubois

african american civil rights activist who advocated for more educational outside of the realm of career technical education for african americans

what was a significant impact of the progressive movement on American life

pushed for more social programs such as social security, unemployment compensation

What was the general purpose of progressive era laws under Theodore Roosevelt

general purpose was to let the people have more say within the government

What was the general objective of muckrakers

they were out there to expose corruption in american society

What was the main theme of Upton Sinclairs book The Jungle

the main theme was the corruption in the meat packing industry during the 1900's

How did Booker T Washington and WEB Dubois differ in opinions

Washington believed african americans would be better served by receiving educational skills that would lead to immediate employment such as agriculture, carpentry, stone masonry. Dubois believed that african americans would be better served if they had educational opportunities to serve the minds such as becoming lawyers

How did the passing of the Sherman Anti Trust Act attempt to reform US business practices

essentially the act attempted to ban monopolies in businesses

Imperialism

a stronger nation giving resources to weaker nations

yellow journalism

style of writing that featured over exaggerations of stories to play on readers emotions

open door policy

letters written to leaders of imperialist countries urging shared rights of trade with the US

rough riders

volunteer soldiers led under Teddy Roosevelt they were most successful at the battle of San Juan Hill

Panama Canal

US trade route across Central America which opened in 1914

dollar diplomacy

controlling of people within a country after federal money is lent to them

manifest destiny

idea that the US should be ruled from the Altantic to Pacific, contributing factor of westward expansion

USS Maine

american ship that was directed to Cuba to take US citizens back to US and protect US land the ship blew up near Havana Cuba on Feb 15 1898 over 260 men were killed

Square deal

Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers

Theodore Roosevelt

first president to win the nobel peace prize he created an agreement to stop the fighting between the Russians and the Japanese in Russo Japanese war. This was called the treaty of Portsmouth, he was also a hero in the battle of San Juan hill

How did yellow journalism affect the spanish american war

yellow journalism affected the spanish american war as it over exaggerated things about the spanish thus playing on americans emotions

what were the main reasons for the spanish american war

it had to do with US imperialism, attach on the USS Maine and gave the US the opportunity to take over land that the spanish occupied

what were the effects of the square deal

better wages, resonable work hours, limits on child labor

triple alliance (allies)

an alliance system during WWI that was made up of England Russia and France

triple entente

alliance system that was made up of Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary

convoy system

large force of ships that allowed allied merchant ships to cross the Atlantic while destroying every ship in its path

League of Nations

a proposed organization spread out internationally that would give representatives of nations the opportunity to work out their problems without having to go to war (an early UN)

Treaty of Versailles

a treaty conceived by the allies that created nine new territories including Poland and Czechsolovikia

propaganda

Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

austria hungarys heir to the the throne. was assasinated along with his wife while visiting Bosnia

Woodrow Wilson

president during WWI he created a document called the 14 points act an attempt to create an agreement between Germany and other European nations

Gavrilo Princip

the assasin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand,

Keiser William II

germanys leader during WWI

Czar Nicholas II

Russias leader during WWI

what were the main causes of WWI

assisanation of Archduke Francis Ferndinand, Germanys high military power, US and European fear that Germany would take over the world

Why did American not get involved at the beginning of WWI

americans believed in a policy of isolationism which meant that they did not get involved in other countries affairs if they were not directly involved

Why did america finally get involved in WWI

had to do with the British ship called the Lucitania where it had killed 180 americans out of the 1198 people on the ship on May 7 1915

what were the major results of WWI for America

after the war US industry boomed more americans moved to cities but there was high unemployment and we went into a recession

what were the main differences between the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles

league of nations was open to any countries problems and would create a solution that would benefit that country. Treaty of Versailles was not open to any countries problems because it seemed to bar Germany to doing things in Europe

communism

an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions

teapot dome scandal

scandal that happened during Warren Hardings presidency in which the nations two most important oil sources were sold unlawfully to the dept of interior and then they were sold to private companies who pocketed the profits off the oil reserves without Hardings consent

scopes monkey trial

1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism

flappers

Young women in the 1920s who challenged social traditions with their dress and behavior

speakeasies

after hour clubs where alcohol was served

harlem renaissance

a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

Warren G Harding

president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI

Charles Lindbergh

an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational development.

Sacco and Vanzetti

were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime

Calvin Coolidge

elected Vice President and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923 (1872-1933)

why were americans fearful of communism

because communists governments do not respect the natural rights of the people

what were the major results of prohibition

caused an underground boot legging operation

what were the major gains for women during this time period

in 1920 the women gained the right to vote

what were the major gains for african americans during this time period

WEB Dubois and others reformers founded the NAACP

great depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

social security act

guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

fireside chat

Radio speeches giving Americans hope during the depression; given by FDR

dust bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

hoboes

In the 1930s these men roamed the country, hopped of freight cars, and went to wherever they could find a job. Sometimes they had to beg for food.

tennessee valley authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

new deal

the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented

Franklin D Roosevelt

President of the US during Great Depression and World War II

Eleanor Roosevelt

wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

what were the major causes of the Great Depression

stock market crashed in 1929, dust bowl,

what were the most influential parts of the New Deal

FDIC, aid to states through the federal emergency relief association, works progress administration and the social security act

How did government change the most because of the Great Depression

govt became more socially active by creating programs with social safety nets to assist in the lives of the people government also became larger and more expensive

hoovervilles

Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that thte people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression.

bonus army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash

stocks on margin

buying stocks without putting up the full value of the purchase

boxer rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality

operation desert shield

(GB1) Bush place embargo on Iraq, put miltary in Saudi, West Europe and Arabs now against Iraq

operation desert storm

the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)

columbine

site of school shooting 1999

Al-Queda

Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.

Taliban

a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996

9/11 attacks

Arab terrorists hijacked 4 airliners, crashing into the twin towers, the Pentagon, and a failed site in Pennsylvania

Ronald Reagan

40th President of the United States 1981-1989, republican

George HW Bush

President from 1989-1993, president 1989-93; economic recession and US involvement in the Persian Gulf war

Bill Clinton

42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached

George W Bush

43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001

Barack Obama

44th U.S. President 2009-current Democratic

Saddam Hussein

Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran

Osama Bin Laden

Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957)

Timothy McViegh

27 year-old American who was tried, convicted, and executed who was responsible for the bombing in downtown Oklahoma City

What were the major effects of the 9/11 attacks in New York

invention of the department of Homeland Security, strict airling regulations, general fear of what would happen in the future

Why did the US get involved in the middle east

they became involved after the 9/11 attacks to catch Osama Bin Laden

16th amendment

Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.

17th amendment

Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.

18th amendment

prohibition of alcohol

19th amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

20th amendment

reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

William McKinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

William Taft

27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

Warren Harding

president after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism 29th president

Calvin Coolidge

Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased

Franklin D Roosevelt

President of the US during Great Depression and World War II

You will need to know directions on a map (north, south, east and west)

can you do this

You will need to be able to interpret political cartoons

can you do this

you will need to be able to read graphs and answer questions

can you do this

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