Diseases and conditions of the Endocrine System

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Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone

hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; regulates skin pigmentation

Prolactin

hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates breast development and formation of milk during pregnancy and after delivery

Luteinizing Hormone

hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; causes ovulation; stimulates ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone; stimulates testerone production

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; initiates growth of eggs in ovaries; Stimulates spermatogenesis in testes

Corticotropin
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids

Thyrotropin
Thyroid-Stimulation Hormone

hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates thyroid gland and the production of thyroxine

Growth Hormone

hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; promotes bone and tissue growth

Vasopressin
Antidiuretic Hormone

hormone produced by posterior pituitary gland; stimulates water resorption by renal tubules; has antidiuretic effect

Oxytocin

hormone produced by posterior pituitary gland; induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing

Thyroxine

hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate cellular metabolism (T4)

Triiodothyronine

hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate cellular metabolism (T3)

Calcitonin

hormone produced by the thyroid that reduces blood calcium levels

Parathyroid Hormone

hormone produced by parathyroid gland; regulates metabolism of calcium; elevates serum calcium by drawing calcium from bones

Mineralocorticoids

hormone produced by adrenal cortex; promotes sodium reabsorption by the kidneys and helps control the salt-water balance. (ex. aldosterone)

Glucocorticoids

hormone produced by adrenal cortex; regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in cells (ex. cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone)

Gonadocorticoids

hormone produced by adrenal cortex; governs secondary sex characteristics and masculinization (ex. androgens, estrogens, progestins)

Catecholamines

hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response (fight or flight response) (ex. epinephrine and norepinephrine)

Insulin

hormone secreted by pancreas (the B cells); controls blood glucose

Glucagon

hormone secreted by pancreas (the A cells); increases concentration of glucose in blood by causing conversion of glycogen to glucose

Estrogens

hormone produced in the ovaries; cause development of female secondary sex characteristics

Progesterone

hormone produced in the ovaries; prepares and maintains endometrium for implantation and pregnancy

Testerone

hormone produced by testes; stimulates and promotes growth of male secondary sex characteristics and is essential fo rerections

Thymosin

hormone produced by thymus gland; promotes development of immune cells ( gland atrophies during adulthood)

Melatonin

hormone produced by pineal gland; regulates daily patterns of sleep and wakefulness

Gigantism

hypersecretion of GH occurs before puberty, often caused by adenoma in anterior pituitary

Acromegaly

hypersecretion of GH occurs after puberty characterized by overgrowth of bones in the face, hands and feet

Hypopituitarism

a deficiency or absence of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland

Dwarfism

hypopituitarism; congenital, treated with hGH (somatropin) until child is 5 ft tall

Diabetes Insipidus

deficiency in the release of vasopressin (ADH), may be hereditary or the result of an insult to the hypothalmus or pituitary gland

Goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland, ususally the result of iodine shortage

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

autoimmune disorder; occurs in women 8 times more than men, most common between 45-65 and is the leading cause of goiter and hypothyroidism

Graves Disease

diffuse goiter and over-production of thyroid hormone, main symptom is exophtalmos (outward protrusion of eyeballs)

Cretinism

congenital condition in infants and young children in which the thyroid gland is absent or nonfunctional resulting in mental and growth retardation

Myxedema

severe acquired hypothyroidism developing in older children or adults, s/s mimic depression

Hyperparathyroidism

increase in the breakdown of bone from skeletal system resulting in hypercalcemia, muscle weakness and atrophy

Hypoparathyroidism

s/s-hypocalcemia - hyperexcitability of nervous system resulting in overstimulation of skeletal muscles. Numbness, tingling of fingertips, toes, ears or nose, muscle spasms in hands and feet

Cushing's Syndrome

excessive cortisol levels, resulting in moon face, buffalo hump and gross obesity of trunk

Addison's Disease

partial or complete failure of adrenocortical function

Diabetes Mellitus

type I - early onset, usually before 30, little or no insulin being secreted by pancreas, insulin-dependent
type II - more common, gradual onset in people over 55, some function of pancreas remains allowing some control of symptoms by dietary management and oral medications

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