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Study guide over Chapter 21 on the Stearns AP World History website covering the Muslim Empires.

What did all three Muslim Empires have in common?

Each originated from the Turkic cultures, possessed religious fervor and zeal for conversion. They were all ruled by absolute monarchs.

In which ways did the empires differ in aspects of ruling?

Mughals were ruled by non-muslims mostly. Safavids were ruled my Shia Muslims, and the Ottomans by Muslims and Christians.

Where did The Ottomans rule?

The East

Where did the Mughals rule?

First conquered Dehli and from there ruled most of India.

Where did the Safavids rule?

Persia and Afghanistan.

When did the Ottomans move in to the Blakins?

During the 14th and 15th centuries.

Explain Ottomans relation the Byzantines.

In 1453, the Ottomans captured Constantinople and that ended the Byzantine reign.

What role did the military play in the Ottoman Empire?

. The Turkic horsemen became a warrior aristocracy supported by control of conquered land and peasants. When their power shrank before that of an expanding central bureaucracy, they built up regional power bases. From the middle of the fifteenth century, imperial armies were dominated by Janissary infantry divisions composed of conscripted youths from conquered lands. Their control of artillery and firearms gave them great power; by the middle of the sixteenth century, they intervened in dynastic succession disputes

Explain aftermath of conquered Constantinople.

the church of St. Sophia became one of Islam's grandest mosques. Most sultans tried to add to the city's splendor: Suleyman the Magnificent built the great Suleymaniye mosque in the sixteenth century. Constantinople became the commercial center dealing in products from Asia, Africa, and Europe. Many urban inhabitants belonged to merchant and artisan classes. The government closely regulated both activities. Artisan guilds were very important. By the seventeenth century, the Turkish language became the preferred vehicle for literature and government. The Ottomans left a significant artistic legacy in poetry, ceramics, carpet manufacturing, and architecture.

What led to the fall of the Ottoman Empire?

Conquests ceased, bureaucracy became corrupt, and regional officials used revenues for their own purposes. Oppressed peasants and laborers fled the land or rebelled. Problems at the center of the state added to the decline. Sultans and their sons were confined to the palace; they became weak and indolent rulers managed by court factions. Civil strife increased and military efficiency deteriorated.

Who were the Safavids?

The Safavids were Shi'a Muslims from a family of Sufi preachers and mystics.

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