Bio Genetics Quiz

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Vencile's Honors Bio - Genetics/ DNA quiz

Mendel

Bred pea plants to study how traits were passed on, came to 2 conclusions and 2 principles

Mendel's Conclusions

1. Always inherit a pair of genes that control a trait, one from each parent 2. A gene for a single trait comes in alternate forms called alleles- either dominant or recessive

Alleles

Two different types of one gene - one is dominant the other recessive. The recessive will not show up unless the dominant is not present

Dominant

an allele that will always be expressed if present

Recessive

an allele that will only be expressed in the absence of the dominant allele

Phenotype

the allele that is being expressed - what is seen

Genotype

the alleles you possess for a given trait, three types: Homozygous dominant, Homozygous recessive, and heterozygous

Homozygous Recessive

having two recessive alleles for a trait

Homozygous Dominant

having two dominant alleles for a trait

Heterozygous

having one dominant and one recessive allele for a trait

Law of Segregation (Mendel's 1st principle)

two alleles of any gene are on homologs that separate from each other in Anaphase of meiosis. Half sex cells get one allele, and the other half get the other

Law of Independent Assortment (Mendel's 2nd principle)

Homolog arrangement in Metaphase I is random, passing a maternal allele from one homolog does not affect any other homologous pair

Sex Linked Traits

A trait that is only present on the 23rd homologous pair- the X or the Y. If a Y linked trait- will always appear since there is only ever one Y in the 23rd homologous pair (Male=xy, Female= xx)

Autosomal Dominant

Trait is dominant: phenotype appears every generation, affected individual has at least one affected parent, affects both male and female

Autosomal Recessive

Trait is recessive: phenotype can skip a generation, affected individual can have unaffected parents, affects both male and female

Complete Dominance

Punnett Square- Dominant trait is ALWAYS dominant

Incomplete Dominance

Phenotype is a blend of dominant and recessive alleles - pink carnation

Co-dominance

Phenotype is both alleles, but not blended- more blotchy. Is often ENVIRONMENTALLY influenced

Multiple Alleles

A gene that has more than two possible alleles- you can only inherit two, even if there are more than two possibilities

Pleiotropic

One gene controls multiple different traits (opposite of polygenic)

Polygenic

Multiple genes control the same trait (opposite of pleiotropic)

Chromatin

Makes up Chromatids- make up chromosomes: Made of histone protines with strands of DNA wrapped around them twice

DNA is a polymer made of ____ monomers

Nucleotides

Nucleotides made of: (3 parts)

1. Phosphate group 2. Carbohydrate group (sugar) 3. Nitrogenous base

2 classes of nitrogenous bases

1. Purines 2. Pyramidines

Purines (2)

Adenine and Guanine

Pyramidines (2)

Cytosine and Thymine

"Railing" of DNA made of

Alternating Carbohydrates and phosphates

Carbohydrates in "railing" of DNA is____ bonded to ____

covalently bonded to "rungs" of nitrogenous bases

"Rungs" of DNA made of _____, ______ bonded

two nitrogenous bases, hydrogen-bonded together

Adenine always bonds with _____ (part of Chargoff's Rules)

Thymine

Thymine always bonds with_____(part of Chargoff's Rules)

Adenine

Guanine always bonds with _____(part of Chargoff's Rules)

Cytosine

Cytosine always bonds with _____(part of Chargoff's Rules)

Guanine

Chargoff's Rules say:

which nitrogenous bases will bond together

Order of pairs of nitrogenous bases in DNA

variable- determines an individual's genetic code

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