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Review

IDEA - digestive system function

Ingestion, digestion, elimination, absorption

Number of teeth...

32

Types of teeth...

incisor, cuspid, bicuspid, tricuspid

tooth parts

crown (outer portion) - neck (narrow part below gum line) - root (end) - pulp cavity (core)

Salivary Glands

Parotid (cheek) - Submandibular (lower jaw) - Sublingual (under tongue)

What is the pharynx?

Throat

Tube thru which air, food, and water travel...

pharynx

What covers the larynx (esophagus) when swallowing?

Epiglottis

Tube that carries food from pharynx to stomach?

Esophagus

Stomach (3 parts)

Fundus (upper) - Body (middle) - Antrum/Pylorus (lower)

What is a sphincter?

Ring of muscles

Sphincter at entry of stomach...

Gastroesophageal or Cardiac

Sphincter from stomach into small intestine...

Pyloric

The stomach is lined with...

Rugae

Small Intestines (3 parts)

Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum

Large Intestines (3 main parts)

Cecum, Colon, Sigmoid Colon

Colon consists of...(4 parts)

ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon

Sigmoid colon is connected to...

The rectum which terminates at the anus

Your appendix extends from...(connects the ileum to colon)

cecum

What organ produces bile?

The liver

What stores bile?

The gallbladder

Bile is sent from the liver to the gallbladder via...

the hepatic duct and cystic duct

Bile emulsifies what?

Fat (breaks up large globules)

Large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum...

Pancreas

What is embedded in the pancreas and produces insulin and glucagon...

Islets of Langerhans

Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and maintains organ positions...

Peritoneum

Surgical connection between two parts...

Anastomosis

Refers to the gallbladder, bile, or bile duct (common bile duct)

Biliary (tract)

Difficulty swallowing

Dysphagia

Pulling viscera outside the body through an incision...

Evisceration

Use of electric current to destroy...

Fulgeration

Organ or tissue that protrudes through a wall or cavity that usually contains it...

Hernia

Two words that describe types of hernias...

Incarcerated and strangulated

Term for overlapping...

Imbrication

Term for varicose veins...

Varices

Twisted section of intestines...

Volvulus

The projection at the back of the mouth...

Uvula

Disorders of the oral cavity include...

Defects, infections, and carcinomas

Congenital defect where lip and palate do not properly join together...

Cleft lip and cleft palate

Ulcer or canker sore of the mouth caused by...

HSV1 - Herpes Simplex Virus

Small ulcer

Aphtha

Naturally found in the mouth...

Candida Albicans - Candidiasis

Oral candidiasis

Thrush

Thrush is common in what type of patients?

Diabetics and AIDS patients

Most common type of oral cavity cancer...

Squamous cell carcinoma

Oral cancer type seen in AIDS patients...

Kaposi's Sarcoma

Also known as progressive systemic sclerosis

Scleroderma

Atrophy of smooth muscles of lower esophagus...

Scleroderma

Caused by a hiatal hernia...inflammation leads to scarring...

Esophagitis

Most common type of esophagus cancer...

Squamous cell or secondary adenocarcinoma

Esophagus passes through the diaphragm...part of stomach protrudes through opening in diaphragm into thorax...

Hiatal Hernia

GERD

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

GERD is associated with...

Hiatal Hernias

Inflammation of the stomach mucosa...H. Pylori bacteria...

Gastritis

Erosive area on mucosa caused by stress or H. pylori bacteria...

Peptic Ulcers

Most often occurs in men over 40...cause unknown...often associated with H. Pylori bacteria...

Gastric Ulcer

Predisposing factors of gastric ulcers...

Pernicious anemia...blood type A...carcinogenic foods (smoked meats, nitrates, and pickled foods)

Narrowing of pyloric sphincter...signs appear at birth...symptom is projectile vomiting...

Pyloric Stenosis

most important malabsorption condition...villi atrophy in response to gluten foods...

Celiac Disease

Regional Enterisitis...Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)...affects terminal ileum and colon...inflammation of GI tract

Crohn's Disease

Most common ulcer...develop in younger population...common in Type O blood types...

Duodenal Ulcers

Inflammation of veriform appendix that projects from cecum

Appendicitis

Appendix is located in what quadrant?

RLQ

Inflammation of the peritoneum or membrane that lines the abdominal cavity...usually result of spread of infection or puncture wound...

Peritonitis

Condition of the large intestine that forms sacs in the lining...herniation of intestinal mucosa...

Diverticulosis

When sacs become inflammed...

Diverticulitis

Inflammation of the rectum that progresses to the sigmoid colon...causes increased risk for colorectal cancer...Symptoms are diarrhea and severe cramping...

Ulcerative Colitis

Usually develops from polyps in those 55 and older...

Colorectal cancer

A symptom of biliary disease...icterus...hyperbilirubinemia...

Jaundice

Most commonly a metatasis...secondary cancer

Liver Cancer

Risks for Primary Liver Cancer are...

Hepatitis B, C, and D - Cirrhosis - heavy smoking and alcohol use

Liver cells are damaged which results in inflammation and necrosis...scar tissue forms in the liver...

Viral Hepatitis

Infectious hepatitis most commonly transmitted through contaminated food or water and is curible...

Hepatitis A

Serum Hepatitis...transmission through IV drug use and exposure to blood and bodily fluids and sexual transmission...has long incubation period.

Hepatitis B

Chronic Hepatitis...most common in blood trasnfussions and IV drug users...

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis B is present for this type of Hepatitis to develop...

Hepatitis D

Fecal oral route...hepatitis that does not develop into chronic or carrier...

Hepatitis E

Profuse liver damage

Cirrhosis

Gallbladder is located in what quadrant?

RUQ

Inflammation of the gallbladder and cystic duct...

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the bile duct...

Cholangitis

Formation of gallstones...RUQ pain

Cholelithiasis

Inflammation of the pancreas...commonly associated with alcoholism, biliary tract obstruction, drug toxicity, gallstone obstruction...

Pancreatitis

bucc/o

cheek

celi/o

stomach/abdomen

cheil/o

lip

chol/e

gall/bile

cholangio/o

bile duct

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

choledoch/o

common bile duct

col/o

colon

enter/o

small intestine

gastr/o

stomach

gloss/o

tongue

hepat/o

liver

labi/o

lip

lapar/o

abdomen

lingu/o

tongue

lith/o

stone

or/o

mouth

sial/o

saliva

sialaden/o

salivary gland

steat/o

fat

stomat/o

mouth

-ase

enzyme

-cele

hernia

-chezia

defecation

-iasis

abnormal condition

-phagia

eating - swallowing

-prandial

meal - postprandial = after meals

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

GI

gastrointestinal

Area between lungs...

Mediastinum

areas of the mediastinum...

Superior, anterior, posterior, middle

Space that houses heart, thymis gland, trachea, esophagus, nerves, lymph, and blood vessels...

Mediastinum

Breathing muscle...dome shaped muscular partition that separates abdominal cavity from thoracic cavity...

Diaphragm

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