Lymphatic System Chapter 19

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Marieb and Hoehn

Lymphatic Vessels

Collect excess fluid from interstitial spaces

Minivalves in their walls

Lymphatic capillaries owe their permeability to the presence of

Excess blood plasma builds up in region where there are no lymph vessels

Why would removal of lymph vessels from the right axillary region cause edema in the right arm?

Arteries, blood capillaries, lymhatic vessels, subclavian vein

Which of the following represents a logical sequence of structures that contribute to the return of fluid in the blood via the lymphatic system

The milking action of skeletal muscle contraction and pressure changes in the thorax that result from breathing

Which of the following contribute(s) to the flow of lymph through lymphatic vessels

bacteria, virus, and mismatched red blood cells

which of the following would the body perceive as an antigen

at the locations where lymphatic collecting vessels converge

The highest density of lymph nodes can be found

Bacteria, Large Proteins and Interstitial Fluid

Can enter Lymph Capillaries

An Advantage to having reticular connective tissue in lymph nodes would be that

The loose organization of reticular connective tissue provides niches for macrophages and lymphocytes, lymph filters through the nodes and is exposed to lymphocytes and macrophages, and lymphocytes cycle to various areas of the body and back to lymph nodes

fewer efferent lymphatic vessels than afferent lymphatic vessels

Lymph tends to stall inside lymph nodes due to

Spleen

The largest lymphoid organ

Blood filtering; immunity

Red pulp of the spleen is most concerned with ___ and ___, while white pulp is most concerned with ___.

T Lymphocyte maturation

The thymus is important for

The immune system

The diverse set of molecules and immune cells that are found in lymphoid tissue and fluids throughout the body

Spleen

Which of the following lymphoid tissues removes defective red blood cells from the blood

trapping pathogens to develop immune cells with memory

Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by

Skin and mucous membranes

Which of the following act as the first line of defense against foreign pathogens

Natural cell killers

The two intrinsic defense systems have many components. Which of the following cell types is not a contributor to specific immunity?

Monocytes

Macrophages are derived from ___

Neutrophils; monocytes

____ And ____ are the most common phagocytic cells in the blood

Mucus

Which of the following is not a mechanical barrier to pathogen invasion

The respiratory burst

In order for some phagocytes to destroy certain pathogens they must have ingested (like tuberculosis), ____must be deployed

They are all vasodilators

What characteristics do all inflammatory chemicals share

Leukocytosis

An increase in white blood cell number at sites of injury, which is characteristic of inflammation, is called ____

Red, hot, swollen and painful

Your hand has a scratch. What signals would indicate that the injury is inflammed?

bacterial cell membrane lysis

The basic mechanism employed by complement to fight bacterial infections is

diapedesis

The process by which phagocytes exit capillaries and enter injured tissue is called

interferon

A patient has contracted the hepatitis c virus. Which of the following drug therapies might be effective

opsonization

The process of attaching complement proteins to the bacterial cell wall to enhance phagoctosis is called

An increase in body temperatures set point

What would be the body's response if the hypothalamus detected pyrogens?

MHC

The presence of____ proteins makes it possible for our immune system to differentiate between our cells and those that are foreign

Haptens

___become antigenic if they attach themselves to larger proteins

Nonself-antibody

Which of the following materials or compounds wold be the most highly immunogenic

cell-mediated; humoral

The adaptive immune system involves three major cell types: antigen-presenting cells, T cells, which constitute ____ immunity, and B cells, which govern____ immunity

Certain T cells are required to activate B cells into antibody-producing cells

Why would a patient with no thymus lack an effective humoral immune response?

bone marrow; thymus

Lymphocytes are educated within primary lymphoid organs. B cells are educated in the ___ white T cells are educated in the ___

memory cells

The basis of immunity is the presence of

Proteins

In which class of molecules are antibodies classified

Plasma Cells

During clonal selection of B cells, those B cells with complementary membrane receptors to the invading antigen will differentiate into

artificially acquired active

A patient has been immunized against chicken pox. What type of immunity is this?

IgG

Of the following classes of antibodies, which can cross the placenta

Antibodies immobilize antigens and mark them for destruction

Which of the following best describes an antibody's mode of action

Cytotoxic T cells induce cells lysis with perforin, a protein similar to complenents MAC

How is the cytoxic T cell mechanism of action similar to that of complement?

Antigen-presenting cells link anitgenic peptides to MHC proteins in which T cells will attach

How are T cells "introduced" to antigens?

autoimmune disease

When antibodies develop against a a person's own cells, this is an example of a(n)

Major function of the lymphatic system

return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system is the______

Peyer's patches

Aggregates of lymphoid nodules located in the wall of the ileum are

Spleen

In addition to its lymphoid function, this organ holds a reservoir of platelets

reticular connective tissue

The structural framework of lymphoid tissue is offered by

Appendix

This structure, attached to the cecum, is in an ideal location to destroy bacteria before it migrates into the large intestine

Capillary

What lymphatic structure absorbs excess tissue fluid?

Lacteal

What lymphatic structure absorbs lipids in the intestine?

Palatine Tonsils

What lymphatic structures trap bacteria in the posterior oral mucosa?

Lymphocytes

Located in the spleen's white pulp?

Capillaries, vessels, trunks, ducts

The flow of lymph through the lymphatic system?

It maintains blood volume and, hence, pressure

Describe the lymphatic system's role in relation to the cardiovascular system?

Thoracic duct

It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg.

Lymph Nodes

They have fewer efferent vessels than afferent (incoming) vessels.

A one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillaries

Describe the arrangement of lymphatic vessels?

Thymus

The major lymphoid organ that "trains" T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent?

Lymph Nodes

the principle lymphoid organs in the body?

Tonsils

The lymphoid organs located in the throat that defend against invading bacteria coming in through the mouth and nose

Lymphatics

vessel that transports fluid that leaks from the vascular system back into the blood

CSF

Excess tissue fluid in the brain drains into the

Lymphangitis

red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touch.

lymphedema

Sever localized Edema

Germinal centers

When B lymphocytes are dividing rapidly, the _____ of the lymphoid tissue enlarges

Medullary cords

Where are plasma cells found in the node?

Lymph sinuses

Large lymph capillaries spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers are known as

Spleen

Where is the site of erythrocyte production in the fetus?

White pulp

Areas of lymphocytes suspended by reticular fibers in the spleen are known as:

Sentinel Node

the first lymph node that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancer.

Lymphatic collecting vessels

What part of the lymphatic system is most closely associated with capillary beds

subclavian veins

All lymph is eventually returned to circulation via the

plasma cells

produces antibodies

macrophage

phagocytic cell

dendritic cell

Captures antigens and presents them to lymph nodes

Reticular cell

Fibroblast-like cell that produces the reticular fiber stroma

Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, efferent vessel

the correct order of lymph flow through the lymph node

cisterna chyli

What is the saclike initial portion of the thoracic duct?

reticular tissue

What is the structural framework of lymphoid organs?

axillae, groin, cervical region

Where are lymph nodes densely clustered?

proliferating B lymphocytes

What is largely found in germinal center within lymph nodes?

Venous Sinuses

The red pulp area of the spleen are sites of what?

Thymus

the lymphoid organ that functions primarily during youth and then begins to atrophy is what?

appendix follicles, the tonsils, and peyer's patches

collections of lymphoid tissue (MALT) that guard mucosal surfaces include what?

MALT

lymphoid tissue found in the mucosa of the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts

Lingual tonsils

lymphoid tissue found in the mucosa of the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts

Inguinal nodes

Lymph collecting or pooling from the lower extremities would first pool where before moving on up?

Plasma proteins, water, and ions

What are the normal components of lymph?

Plasma cells

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by what?

Lipids

Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary WHAT that cannot be absorbed into the capillaries?

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