Chapter 1 Study Guide (Lecture)
Math / Symbols
|Anatomic Nomenclature|| The terms used to name body components.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Proper nomenclature listed in the "Nomina Anatomica" is often compromised by the continued use of slang, obsolete, and inventive terms.
|Anatomy|| The science of body structure.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: It is essentially synonymous with morphology (the study of form) and is divided into numerous subtypes.
|Auscultation|| Evaluation of body structures based on the noises they produce.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Auscultation is of limited value anatomically because most organs don't produce sounds.
|Biological Macromolecules||Large organic molecules that are synthesized from smaller organic components by living organisms. Four main groups are PROTEINS, LIPIDS, POLYSACCHARIDES, and NUCLEIC ACIDS.|
|Cell|| unit of living matter surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane and capable of reproduction in an environment devoid of other living things.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: There are dozens of different kinds of cells in the body.
|Diagnostic Imaging|| The various techniques used to demonstrate the relationships of the body components without physically invading the body.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: These include several forms of radiography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide imaging.
|Dissection|| The process of methodically cutting the body apart in order to study its individual components and their relationships.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Dissection was the first means of anatomic study and remains the best single technique today.
|Lumen|| The hollow space within s tubular organ.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Many body organs have such a design including most of the organs of the visceral body systems as well as the heart, vessels, and even the brain and spinal cord.
|Mucous Membrane (mucosa)||The lining layer of the tubular organs of the visceral body systems. Mucous membranes contain epithelium and connective tissue and typically include muscle tissue as well.|
|Normal Anatomic Position (NAP)||A standardized body position used when comparing positional relationship of body components. In the NAP, the body is standing erect with the head and feet forward, the superior limbs hanging straight down at the sides of the truck, the palms to the front, and the fingers straightened and directed downward.|
|Organ|| A body structure composed of at least two different tissues.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Most organs contain several kinds of tissue and they vary from small, simple entities like capillaries to large complex structures such as the heart and brain.
|Organelle|| A structural subcomponent of a cell composed of various combinations of biological macromolecules.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Organelles play strictly defined functional roles and include the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria, as well as several others.
|Palpation|| The identification and study of body parts by touch and fell.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: A significantly large percentage of body structures can be identified in this manner, but patience and practice are required.
|Parenchyma|| The functional part of an organ (vs. the structural portion which is called the stroma).|
ADDITIONAL INFO: In a gland, for example, the secretory cells form the parenchyma and the connective tissue framework that supports the secretory cells comprises the stroma.
|Plane|| A flat surface virtually passed through the body for the purpose of comparing positional relationships.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Different Planes
Vertical Plane: divides the body into right and left parts (sagittal planes) or front and back parts (coronal planes).
Transverse Planes: divide the body into upper and lower portions (horizontally oriented)
|Principles of Morphology|| The structural design features of the body. They include:|
Tubulation: hollowness that continues from organ to organ
Zygomorphism: bilateral symmetry
Metamerism: linear sequencing
Caviation: space between organs
|Serous Membrane (serosa)|| The thin, transparent membrane formed of epithelium and connective tissue that lines the closed body cavities.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: Serous membranes are variously named pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum to distinguish those into which lungs, heart, and abdominal organs are invaginated (respectively).
|System||A group of organs that fulfills a specific function. Depending on one's organizational scheme, body organs are grouped into eight to twelve systems which are divided into two categories: visceral systems and somatic systems.|
|Taxonomy|| The science of classifying and naming plants and animals.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: The major taxa (categories) within the animal kingdom are phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. For mankind these are Chordata, Mammalia, Primates, Hominidae, Homo, and sapiens, respectively.
|Tissue|| A group of similar cells and their extracellular products.|
ADDITIONAL INFO: There are four basic tissues in the body (muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, and nervous tissue), and these are subdivided into numerous specific tissue types.
|Viscus (plural = viscera)||Any organ that belongs to one of the visceral body systems. Such systems have 3 distinct features: tubular design, a mucous membrane lining, and one or more openings at the body surface.|
| anatomy |
| anatomy is the science of the body structures |
physiology is primarily body functions
morphology is the study of form
|what do humans belong to in this classification Kingdom ?||Animalia|
|what do humans belong to in this classification Family?||Hominidae|
|what do humans belong to in this classification genus?||homo|
|what do humans belong to in this classification species?||sapiens|
|3 sub types of anatomy|| Gross anatomy w/o microscope|
microscopic anatomy 1000x magnification
ultra structural anatomy 1000x
|anatomy study techniques||observation of wounds through dissection|
Invades the body, harmful to body, no hard copy
touch and feel, non-invasive, not harmful, no hard copy
, Invasive, harmful, produces hard copy
non invasive harmful, produces hard copy
non ivasive non harmful, prodcues hard copy
non invasive non harmful produces hard copy
non invasive non harmful no hard copy
yes yes no
|eponyms||lack descriptive value|
|five humanoid charachteristics|| brain size|
bipedal loco motion
# of teeth, vertebrae, neonate helplessness
|human beings||species, sex, age, race, individual variations, state of health|
|What are the 10 levels of organization?|| sub atomic|
|What are the visceral body systems|| DRUMF |
male reproductive system
female reproductive system
|what are the somatic body systems|| cnsmile|
|what are the three charachteristics of visceral body systems|| tom |
tubular in design
opening at one or more body surfaces
mucuos membrane lining
|What are the four basic tissues?|| Connnective |
|five principles of morphology?|| zygomorphism bilateral symmetry |
tubulations hollow or tubular in design