Provide stability and ensure that a baked item doesn't collapse when it is removed from the oven.
Chemical, Organic, & Physical; necessary in baking, they allow the dough or batter to rise.
Gelatin, flour, arrowroot (a powdered starch made from a tropical root), cornstarch, and eggs. Combined with the stirring process, determines the consistency of the finished product.
One of the most important elements used in baking; can be water, milk, cream, molasses, honey, or butter.
Occurs whenever sugar is used as an ingredient in baked items; the heat causes the sugar to turn a light brown (caramel) color.
Flour always has a proportion of 100 percent, and the percentages of all other ingredients are calculated in relation to the flour.
Adds air to flour, cocoa, and confectioner's sugar; removes lumps and filters out any impurities.
Made with the addition of shortening or tenderizing ingredients such as sugars, syrups, butter, eggs, milk, and cream.
Also called the straight-mix method; this method can be used for all types of doughs - lean, rich, and sponge. The baker can combine all ingredients at the same time, or he or she might mix the yeast with the warm water first.
Manipulating dough to develop the gluten and give the dough the stretch and give it needs to develop the proper texture.
Used to mix yeast doughs. The first stage of this method involves mixing the yeast, half of the liquid, and half of the flour to make a thick batter called a sponge. After the sponge rises and doubles its size, the remaining fat, liquid, salt, sugar, and flour are added.
Mixture of water, yeast, and all-purpose flour that has been fermented until it has a sour smell (usually overnight).
Popular snack and dessert item that is usually easy and quick to make. Quickbreads use chemical leaveners rather than organic ones and therefore, don't require a rising period.
Process of mixing the fat and sugar together to produce a very fine crumb and a dense, rich texture.
Creating a foam of whole eggs, yolks, or whites provides the structure for the cake. This is used to make cakes with the lightest texture, such as angel food and chiffon cake.
Used to make high-ratio cakes. The first stage is to combine a softened or melted shortening with the dry ingredients. The second stage is to add and blend in one-half of the liquid being used in the recipe and then gradually add the remaining liquid to the mixture.
Smooth and creamy; cook by combining sugar, water, and a glucose or a corn syrup. often used on éclairs, petits fours, cakes, and napoleons.
Use cocoa/chocolate, sugar, butter, and a liquid(water or milk). Used on cupcakes, layer, and sheet cakes.
French term referring to a smooth mixture of chocolate and cream. Used to cover cakes or tortes.
Can be a simple corn syrup, or contain fruit or chocolate; adds moisture, shine, and sometimes flavor to bakery products. ususally drizzled.
"Decorator's Icing"; almost always used only for decorations. Uncooked; dries brittle. made from confectioners' sugar and egg whites, food coloring optional.
More stable than soufflés because of the greater percentage of eggs and sugar in the batter. Baked custard and chocolate sponge pudding are examples.
Lightened with beaten egg whites then baked, causing it to rise like a cake. Rely on egg whites and are not as stable as puddings.
Used for pies, this dough is made of three parts flour, two parts fat, and one part water.
Elegant product also called pâte feuilletée [squares], that can be used in both sweet and savory applications.
Cookies made by baking three or four bars of dough the length of the baking pan, and then slicing them into small bars. Ex. Biscotti
Cookies made by taking a soft dough and dropping them from a spoon or scoop onto the cookie sheet. Ex. Chocolate Chip, Oatmeal
Cut these cookies from a stiff dough that has been rolled out on a baking board. Ex. Decorated Sugar, Shortbread
Pour the batter into the entire baking pan and then slice it into individual squares or rectangles after baking. Ex. Brownies, Blondies, Butterscoth Brownies
White coating that sometimes appears on the surface of the chocolate and indicates that some of the cocoa butter has melted and then recrystalized on the surface.
Frozen mixture of fruit juice or fruit purée that contain no dairy and contain sweeteners and other flavors or additives.
Frozen dessert that contains yogurt in addition to normal ice cream ingredients, such as sugar or other sweeteners, gelatin, coloring, and flavors.
"Crème Pâtissière"; this cream has greater density than custard and is frequently used as the filling for pastries such as éclairs.