English author of "Essay on the Principle of Population" in which he argued that population would always tend to grow faster than the food supply.
English economist whose iron law of wages asserted that wages would only be high enough to prevent starvation.
A major burst of inventions and technical changes that occurred in certain industries and began in England, lasting from 1750-1900. It came about as a result of the scientific and agricultural revs. and saw the evolution from hand to power tools.
A type of domestic/rural industry also known as "protoindustrialization". Landless peasants worked in textiles using hand tools. Problems included long travel time, shortage of thread, and the inefficiency of hand-sewing. Workers hated factories b/c of their resemblance to poorhouses.
The fencing in of open fields and common lands in order to farm more efficiently and experiment with better methods. It displaced rural proletarians and provided a potential industrial labor force.
Why did England industrialize first?
It had a labor force, capital, market, raw materials, transportation, gov't support, and patents.
Inventor of the spinning jenny which could spin thread more simply, inexpensively, and efficiently.
Inventor of the water frame which utilized water power to spin coarse thread and required factories with many workers.
English inventor of the spinning mule, suitable for the spinning of muslin and combined the best features of the spinning jenny and water frame.
American inventor of the cotton gin which efficiently removed cotton seeds and allowed slavery to flourish.
English inventor of one of the first primitive steam engines in 1698. It burned coal to produce steam and operated in English and Scottish mines but was terribly inefficient.
English inventor of one of the first primitive steam engines in 1705. It burned coal to produce steam and operated in English and Scottish mines but was terribly inefficient.
Scottish inventor who improved the Newcomen steam engine and patented it in 1769.
English inventor of the coke-burning blast furnace which utilized coke rather than low supplies of charcoal to produce iron.
English inventor of the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke, and steam-powered rolling mills to produce finished iron.
There was an explosion of it between 1750 and 1850, but it significantly decreased after 1850 b/c of cheap birth control and pregnancy leading to marriage.
After 1850, children were treated with more love and concern, women began breastfeeding again, and people limited their number of children.
English civil/mechanical engineer who built the first public railway in the world to have steam locomotives. Built steam engine Rocket.
White collar society attended church, however, the last few decades saw a decline in church attendance and donations among the urban working class (although religion remained strong). One explanation is that church construction failed to keep up with the growth of the urban pop.
American inventor of the first commercially successful steamboat
They labored as seamstresses, prostitutes, or servants. They had legal inferiority and moved to cities to find men. They were expected to be virgins.
An institution independent from its members and with separate liability. Europe developed joint stock/corporate banks with limited liability as a means for quick capital.
Social drinking, spectator sports (soccer, horse racing), music halls, and vaudevilles
It is based on romantic love, fidelity important, women move to cities for men.
German economist, nationalist, and author of the "National System of Political Economy" in which he asserts that tariffs and railroads are needed to build a nat'l economy. He supported the formation of a freed trade union (Zollverein) and industry
German customs union among the separate German states, allowing goods to move between states w/o tariffs, and setting uniform tariffs against other nations.
Middle class whose work required education rather than manual labor.
Upper = industrialist businessmen; regular = educated, moral, holds dinner parties, country homes, valued appearance.
Blue collar urban workers w/o servants, who live in tenants.
Highly skilled workers including foremen & jewelers. They valued education, discipline, and morality.
Anti-technology skilled handicraft laborers who attacked English factories, which they believed put them out of work.
German author of "The Condition of the Working Class in England", an indictment of the middle class for murder and robbery at the expense of industrial workers. He also co-wrote "The Communist Manifesto"
Former child laborer who became a factory owner and testified before Parliament that factories were bad for children
Factory Act of 1833
Banned children under 9 from working and limited the workday for children 9-13 years to eight hours and that of adolescents between 14-18 yrs to twelve hours.
Mines Act (1842)
Prohibited underground work for all women as well as boys under ten.
Combination Acts (1799)
Passed by English Parliament to outlaw unions and strikes. However, it was largely ignored by workers and was repealed in 1824.
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
A large, visionary nat'l union that was organized by Robert Owens in 1834 and failed.
My Secret Life
Anonymous autobiography of an upper middle class English sexual adventurer. It reveals his exploitation of women and poor servants.
Extended family evolves after 1850 as a means of support to help in coping with sickness, unemployment, death, or old age.
Antoine Gustave Droz
French author of "Mr., Mrs., and Baby" which asserted that marriage should be based on love and compatibility; children should be raised with love and interaction.
Philosopher who taught that public problems ought to be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis and according to the "greatest good for the greatest number".
Main commissioner for the Poor Law of 1834. English author of the "Condition of the Laboring Population of Great Britain" which concluded that disease and death caused poverty. According to his Sanitation Idea of 1842, disease could be prevented by improving drainage in sewers in urban environments.
Poor Law of 1834
Amendment to reform the system of poor relief in England
Public Health Law
Creates a nat'l health board and gives cities the authority to build modern sewers. First time European gov't took responsibility for the health of all citizens.
French chemist who developed the germ theory of disease. He discovered that the activity of living organisms could be suppressed by heating beverage through a process known as "pasteurization".
English surgeon who developed the "antiseptic principle" which asserted chemical disinfectant applied to a wound dressing would destroy aerial bacteria.
English novelist of the Victorian era whose prose included a theme of social reform and acted as a voice for the poor. Notable works include "Oliver Twist" and "David Copperfield".
Russian realist and author of "War and Peace" set against the background of Napoleon's invasion of Russia. His prose combines character development and atypical moralizing.
English novelist and poet of the naturalist movement. Author of "Tess of the d'Urbervilles" and "The Return of the Native" depicting men and women frustrated and crushed by fate and bad luck.
Honore de Balzac
French novelist and playwright who spent thirty years writing a panorama of post-revolutionary French life known as "The Human Comedy". It portrays characters from all sectors of French society and their Darwinian struggle for wealth and power.
French realist whose literary manifesto articulated the key themes of realism
English naturalist and author of "On the Origin of Species" which asserted that differences among the members of a species help some to survive and others die, known as natural selection.
English geologist known for his theory of uniformitarianism, the idea that the Earth was shaped by forces still at work today.
French philosopher who founded positivism and sociology and wrote "System of Positive Philosophy".
Art movement of the 1830s and 1840s which sought to recreate real everyday life (known as scientific objectivity).
The idea that the poor are the ill-fated weak, and the prosperous/wealthy are the chosen strong in the survival of the fittest.
The study of society and social human behavior using empirical investigation and critical analysis.
Polish physicist who was a pioneer in radioactivity and discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles and thus does not have a constant atomic weight.
Russian chemist who codified the rules of chemistry in the periodic law and the periodic table in 1869.
Italian inventor who developed the radiotelegraph system.
English chemist and physicist whose discoveries in electromagnetism in the 1830s and 1840s resulted in the first dynamo (generator) and opened the way for subsequent development of the telegraph, electric motor, electric light, and electric streetcar.
English engineer and inventor of the Bessemer process for the mass-production of steel from pig-iron.
French civic planner who rebuilt Paris in 1850 by destroying the old city, building modern sewers, creating parks and wide boulevards, and planning the layout.
Wood is in short supply and factories limit factory locations. Pig iron and coal are used as fuels, the steam engine is invented and as a result the iron industry is improved.
They are dirty, poor, w/o public transportation, they have bad medical practices, high death rates (tuberculosis), and 54% of the pop. live in them by 1891.
Developed from horse drawn carriages, to steam, to electric, to subways and streetcars, which the wealthy could ride from the outskirts to the center.
The rich and influential who began to shrink during the industrial revolution.
Tory prime minister of England who joined the Whigs to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846 and allow imports of grain to help England to escape famine.
Irish Potato Famine
Blight attacked and killed potato crops which caused widespread starvation and mass fever epidemics. Parliament supported the eviction of tenants who couldn't pay their rent. 1.5 million Irish died and 2 million left the country.
Chartism (People's Charter of 1838)
Movement which sought political democracy by demanding universal suffrage. People signed a petition calling on Parliament in '39, '42, and '48 to grant them their rights.
Belgium gained their independence from Holland (Dutch Rep/Neth) in 1831 with a liberal constitution and Leopold as their King.
President of the French Second Republic who won the election by a landslide in 1848. He became ruler of the Second French Empire four years later.
Austrian archduchess who convinced the nobility to name her son, Francis Joseph, emperor in 1848.
Hungarian politician who formed the Hungarian Republic in 1849.
Habsburg Austrian Emperor who promised reforms and a liberal constitution after the Hungarian revolt. He abdicated his throne to Francis Joseph.
French Revolution of 1848
The French people revolt, Louis Philippe abdicates, and the Second Republic of France is created with universal male suffrage, 10 hr. workdays, freedom of slaves, and the abolition of the death penalty. Louis Napoleon is elected president and later becomes emperor.
Emperor of Austria who succeeded Ferdinand I and had yet to bring Hungary under control.
Austrian Revolution of 1848
Hungary demands autonomy and rights through a revolt against Austria. Hungarian Rep created, Hungary fights civil war against minorities, Austrian army retakes Vienna, and Russia invades Hungary, crushes the revolt, and end the Hungarian Rep.
Prussian Revolution of 1848
Liberals demand united German nation and there is revolt in Prussia. Liberal constitutions are written by Berlin Assembly (Prussia) and Nat'l/Frankfurt Assembly (Germany), Friedrich William IV (Prussia) dissolves Berlin Assy., creates conservative const., and tries to become German emperor but is stopped. German confed. reestablished with Austria dominant.
Humiliation of Olmutz
Austria and Russia prevent Friedrich William IV of Prussia from becoming the emperor of Germany.
Orleanist French King (aka Duke of Orleans) who was seated on the throne by the upper middle class in the July Revolution of 1830. He replaced Charles X who fled the revolt. He adopted the Constitutional Charter of 1814 but the poor were disappointed b/c they had received little in return for their efforts in the revolution of 1830.
The conservative, aristocratic monarchies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and England who wished to keep France in its place. They participated in the Congress of Vienna to fashion a general peace settlement including a balance of power, reparations for France, German Confederation, and the uniting of Holland and Belgium.
French Revolution of 1830
French King Louis XVIII creates liberal const. charter, Charles X repeals the charter and enacts July Ordinances, the July Revolution causes him to flee, Louis Philippe seated on the throne in the July Monarchy (liberal const. monarchy).
Scottish philosophy professor whose "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" (1776) founded modern economics. He was highly critical of mercantilism's regulation of trade and economy. He supported free competition and and self-regulating market.
Reform Bill of 1832
English reform of voting rights for the middle class and redistribution of Parliamentary seats from the agricultural south to the industrial north.
German philosopher who believed that each nation possesses a nat'l character known as the volksgeist and no nation is superior.
French Utopian Socialism
Radical doctrine that advocated gov't economic planning, state regulation of property, and universal male suffrage, but it fails.
Henri de Saint Simon
French socialist theorist who believed the key to progress was proper social organization including the parasites (court, aristocracy, lawyers, churchmen) and the doers (scientists, engineers, & industrialists). Doers would undertake public works projects and establish investment banks. Stressed that poor conditions should be improved.
French Utopian socialist and philosopher who advocated 5000 acre self-sustaining communes, emancipation of women, and the abolition of marriage.
French social journalist and radical who wrote the "Organization of Work" which asserted that workers should agitate for voting rights to gain political power. His supporters pressure the gov't to set up nat'l workshops to provide jobs for the unemployed.
French politician, socialist, and printer who wrote a pamphlet in 1840 titled "What is Property?" which asserted that property was profit stolen from the worker. He feared the power of state unlike most socialists and was considered an anarchist.
Co-author of the "Communist Manifesto": an economic interpretation of history in which he asserted that economic factors lead to change. Asserted that class struggles lead to rev. and predicted that proletariats would overcome the bourgeoisie in revolution. His theory of surplus value argued that profits were really wages stolen from the workers.
Art movement that was a revolt against classicism, enlightenment, and reason. It stressed spontaneity, emotional exuberance, nature, and historical study (to promote nationalism). It rejected materialism and was a part of Gothic literature. Key people include Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, Shelley, Keats (literature), Delacroix, Turner, Constable (art), Liszt, & Beethoven (music).
Reactionary French King who succeeded Louis XVIII and wished to sweep away all revolutionary changes and return to royal absolutism. He repealed the const. charter, called the July Ordinances (denied middle class voting rights, censored press), and was overthrown in the July Revolution.
Ten Hours Act (1847)
Limited the workday for women and children to 10 hrs.
Treaty of Adrianople
Granted Greece their independence from the Ottoman Turks in 1830.
Corn Laws (1815)
Regulated the foreign grain trade, but was unnecessary during the war w/ France b/c England couldn't import it. Parliament raised the price of grain to excessive levels.
Coercion Act (1817)
English Tory government temporarily suspended traditional rights of peaceable assembly and habeas corpus in response to the protests by urban laborers over the Corn Laws in a time of postwar economic distress.
Battle/Massacre of Peterloo (1819)
Event in which the armed English cavalry crushed a peaceful protest at Manchester.
Six Acts (1819)
Prohibited mass meeting in England.
Catholic Emancipation/Relief Act
Process in England and Ireland which sought to remove restrictions on Roman Catholics imposed by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts, and the Penal Laws.
English clergyman and inventor of the power loom, a mechanized loom powered by a drive shaft.
Frederick William IV
King of Prussia who rejected plan for liberal, constitutional unified Germany and dissolved the Berlin Assembly. The German princes elected him to the emperorship but was stopped by Russia and Austria in the Humiliation of Olmutz.
Constitutional Charter of 1814
Created by French King Louis XVIII as a liberal constitution to ensure the economic and social gains made by the peasantry and middle class in the French Rev., allow intellectual, religious, and artistic freedom, and create a 2 house Parliament (Peers & Deputies).