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The flavor savory is associated with:
a. salt and pepper.
b. trans fat.
c. tarragon.
d. monosodium glutamate.
e. cinnamon.

d

The routing of blood for the digestive system has a special feature. Which of the following is the correct path of blood flow for the digestive system taking into account the special feature?
a. heart to arteries to capillaries to veins to heart
b. heart to veins to capillaries to arteries to capillaries to hepatic vein to heart
c. heart to veins to capillaries to arteries to heart
d. heart to arteries to capillaries to hepatic vein to capillaries to hepatic portal vein to heart
e. heart to arteries to capillaries to hepatic portal vein to capillaries to hepatic vein to heart

e

Which of the following causes ulcers?
a. excessive soda consumption
b. spicy foods
c. bacterial infections
d. stress

c

Which of the following characteristics of your daily meals should be of greatest importance when considering that some food constituents interfere with nutrient absorption?
a. adequacy
b. balance
c. variety
d. moderation

c

Which digestive organ is responsible for the absorption of water and minerals from the diet?
a. liver
b. large intestine
c. stomach
d. appendix
e. small intestine

b

Which of the following series is in the correct order for the gastrointestinal tract?
a. mouth; esophagus; stomach; large intestine; small intestine; rectum; anus
b. mouth; esophagus; small intestine; large intestine; stomach; rectum; anus
c. mouth; stomach; small intestine; large intestine; esophagus; rectum; anus
d. mouth; esophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestine; rectum; anus
e. mouth; esophagus; stomach; rectum; small intestine; large intestine; anus

d

Where does digestion begin?
a. mouth
b. large intestine
c. stomach
d. small intestine
e. esophagus

a

Peristalsis and sphincter muscles along the GI tract help keep things moving along. Which of the following factors can influence GI tract contractions?
a. all of these choices
b. stress
c. medical conditions
d. medications

a

Which GI tract hormone is secreted from the stomach wall in response to the presence of food in the stomach and resulting in hydrochloric acid being secreted into the stomach?
a. zymogen
b. bile
c. gastrin
d. cholecystokinin
e. secretin

c

Which organ of the GI tract has the strongest muscles?
a. esophagus
b. rectum
c. small intestine
d. large intestine
e. stomach

e

Which statement regarding irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incorrect?
a. Consuming large meals at regular intervals during the day may be an effective treatment in preventing IBS symptoms.
b. Symptoms of IBS include gas, bloating, diarrhea and/or constipation.
c. Avoiding foods that aggravate symptoms, dietary fiber, and peppermint oil are all recommended treatments for IBS.
d. The exact cause of IBS is not known.

a

Which of the following types of nutrient absorption requires energy and occurs when nutrients (such as glucose and amino acids) move against a concentration gradient?
a. active transport
b. simple diffusion
c. facilitated diffusion
d. endocytosis

a

The body's constant effort to bring itself back to normal is known as the principle of ________ .
a. regulatory normalcy
b. symbiosis
c. status quo
d. homeostasis

d

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the small intestine that occurs in response to foods that contain ________ .
a. egg
b. peanuts
c. gluten
d. soy
e. lactose

c

Which of following is not a role of GI tract bacteria?
a. Regulation of blood pressure.
b. Protect GI tract from infectious bacteria launching an attack on the system.
c. Production of vitamins.
d. Production of short fat segments for colon cells to use for energy.

not b, not c

Where does chemical digestion of carbohydrates begin in the GI tract?
a. mouth
b. rectum
c. small intestine
d. large intestine
e. stomach

a

Which of the following sphincters is responsible for preventing reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus?
a. upper esophageal sphincter
b. dual anal sphincters
c. pyloric sphincter
d. ileocecal valve
e. cardiac sphincter

e

Which sphincter allows passage from the stomach to small intestine?
a. illeocecal sphincter
b. pyloric sphincter
c. cardiac sphincter
d. upper esophageal sphincter

b

Of the following GI tract organs, in which does the most absorption take place?
a. small intestine
b. esophagus
c. stomach
d. mouth
e. large intestine

a

Which of the following is not one of the four basic taste sensations?
a. sweet
b. salty
c. savory
d. bitter
e. sour

c

The potential GI health benefits of probiotics include helping to alleviate all of the following, except:
a. diarrhea.
b. asthma.
c. ulcers.
d. allergies.
e. constipation.

b

_______ are living microorganisms that change the conditions and native bacterial colonies in the GI tract in ways that seem to benefit health.
a. Prebiotics
b. Intestinalbiotics
c. Synbiotics
d. Probiotics
e. Antibiotics

d

Which of the following foods is a common culprit for choking?
a. peanut butter
b. all of these choices
c. raw carrots
d. popcorn
e. hot dogs

b

Heartburn can be caused by which of the following conditions?
a. all of these choices
b. eating too much food
c. smoking
d. wearing tight clothing

a

All of the following organs contribute secretions for the breakdown of food into nutrients, except:
a. large intestine.
b. liver.
c. salivary glands.
d. pancreas.
e. stomach.

a

After a mouthful of food has been chewed and swallowed, it is called a/an ________ .
a. salivary mass
b. chyme
c. unami
d. bolu

D

Which of the following statements regarding nutrient transport is false?
a. Chylomicrons move through the lymph and later enter the bloodstream at a point near the heart.
b. Water-soluble nutrients and smaller products of fat digestion are released into the bloodstream from the villus for transport.
c. Nutrients absorbed in the small intestine, whether released into the bloodstream or the lymph, pass through the liver first before distribution to the rest of the body.
d. Larger fats and fat-soluble vitamins are assembled with proteins to form chylomicrons which are released into the lymphatic system.

not b, not d

Which of the following digestive secretions serves to emulsify fat so that enzymes can have access to break down the fat?
a. saliva
b. intestinal juice
c. gastric juice
d. bile
e. pancreatic juice

d

The ________ is/are the body's major metabolic organ(s).
a. stomach
b. kidneys
c. liver
d. gall bladder
e. small intestine

c

Gastric juice has a pH level most similar to which of the following fluids?
a. vinegar
b. household ammonia
c. coffee
d. urine
e. lemon juice

e

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