Sociology 1101 test 1

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Text Book: "You May Ask Yourself" by Dalton Conley. Campus/Class: UGA, Soci 1101 This is a set of definition questions from chapters 3 and 5.

Culture

A set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; the sum total of social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs, practices, and surroundings; that which is not the natural envirronment around us.

Nonmaterial cuture

values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms.

Material culture

everything that is part of our consturcted environment, including technology.

Ideology

a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect.

Cultural relativism

taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value.

Cultural scripts

modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural.

Subculture

the distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a paticular group in society; group having social, economic, or ethnic traits distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society.

Values

moral beliefs.

Norms

how values tell us to act.

Socialization

the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society.

Reflection theory

the idea that culture is a projection of social structure and realtionships into which public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of our society is projected. (The culure is reflected by media but media is not reflected by culture)

Media

any formats or vehicals that carry, present, or communicate information.

Hegemony

a historical process in which a dominate group, by virtue of its moral and intellectual leadership in a society, secures the voluntary "consent" of the masses.

Consumerism

the steady acquisition of material possesions, often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved.

Culture jamming

the act of turning the media against itself.

Dyad

a group of two.

Triad

a group of three or more.

Mediator

member of a triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the two other actors in the group.

Tertius gaudens

the new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members of the group.

Divide et impera

a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors of the group.

Small group

a group characterized by face-to-face interaction, a unifocal perspective, lack of formal arrangements, and a certain level of equality.

Party

a group that is similar to a small group but multifocal.

Large group

a group characterized by the presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and, consequently, status differentiation.

Primary groups

social groups, such as family or friends, composed of intimate face-to-face realtionships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved.

Secondary groups

groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships (those existing as a means to an end).

Reference group

a group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups.

Social network

a set of relations - essentially, a set of dyads - held together by ties between individuals.

Tie

a set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network.

Narrative

the sum of stories contained in a set of ties.

Embeddedness

the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths in a social network.

Strength of weak ties

the notion that often relatively weak ties turn out to be quite valuble beecause they yeild new information.

Structural hole

a gap between network clusters, or even two individuals, if those indiviuals (or clusters) have complementary resources.

Social capital

the information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help people enter into preexisting networks or gain power in them.

Organization

any social network that is defined by common purpose and has boundary between its membership and the rest of the world.

Organizatioinal culture

the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group; often used interchangably with corporate culture.

Organizational structure

the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization.

Isomorphism

a constraining process that forces one organization to resemble others that face the same set of environmental conditions.

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