Ch 29 Study

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Which of the following assists the physician in making a diagnosis?

Diagnostic tests, Health history, Physical examination,
Laboratory tests.

Which of the following occurs when the body is in homeostasis?

Laboratory test results fall within the normal range

All of the following are included on a laboratory request form except the:

Laboratory test results

What is the purpose of performing a routine test?

To assist in the early detection of disease

Which of the following is an example of using a laboratory test to assist in the differential diagnosis of a patient's condition?

Performing a strep test to determine if a patient has strep throat or pharyngitis

What is a profile?

A number of laboratory tests providing related information

Which of the following is an example of using a laboratory test to regulate treatment?

A diabetic patient tests his or her blood to determine how much insulin to administer

Which of the following is not found in a laboratory directory?

Instructions for testing specimens

All of the following are reasons for indicating the clinical diagnosis on the laboratory request form except:

To inform laboratory personnel as to the source of the specimen

What is the purpose of the patient accession number found on the laboratory report?

To provide identification of each specimen in the laboratory

The purpose of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment is to:

Improve the quality of laboratory testing in the United States

Which of the following is an example of a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment waived test?

Urine pregnancy testing

What is the purpose of a laboratory report?

To relay the results of laboratory tests to the physician

All of the following are included in a lipid profile except:

Glucose

The purpose of patient preparation for a laboratory test is to:

Provide a specimen that yields accurate test results

If a laboratory report is returned to the medical office marked "QNS," this means that:

An insufficient amount of the specimen was submitted; Quanity Not Sufficient.

A small sample taken from the body to represent the nature of the whole is known as a:

Specimen

Why is it important to handle and store a specimen properly?

To maintain the in vivo qualities of the specimen

Antibiotics taken by the patient before the collection of a throat specimen for culture may result in:

A false negative report

Which of the following laboratory tests requires fasting?

FBS
Triglycerides
Comprehensive metabolic profile
Glucose tolerance test

A patient who is fasting (in preparation for a laboratory test) is allowed to consume:

Water

What is a laboratory directory?

A list of the tests, standards, and other requirements for specimen collection and transportation.

What qualifies a laboratory as an "outside laboratory"?

It is located in a hospital or owned privately.

Which of the following are reasons that physicians will order laboratory tests:

assist in the diagnosis of a condition, to evaluate progress and to regulate patient treatment, assist in the differential diagnosis of a pt's condition

When the body is in a state of homeostasis, the physical and chemical characteristics of the body substances (e.g. fluids, secretions, excretions) are within an acceptable range known as the:

normal range

When the body is healthy, its systems function normally, and a state of equilibrium of the internal environment is said to exist; this is called:

homeostasis

Which of the following is a violation of laboratory safety precautions?

Opening a centrifuge before it comes to a complete stop

Which of the following is a quality control method?

Proficiency testing, calibration, running controls
discarding outdated reagents

The purpose of quality control is to:

Ensure accurate and valid test results

If a physician's office laboratory is performing moderate-complexity tests, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment requires:

Proficiency testing three times a year, A system to identify patient specimens throughout the testing process, Two levels of controls daily, Calibration procedures every 6 months

When the body is in homeostasis, an imbalance exists in the body.

False

A routine test is performed to assist in the early detection of disease.

True

The laboratory request form provides the outside laboratory with information needed to test the specimen.

True

The clinical diagnosis is indicated on a laboratory request to correlate laboratory data with the needs of the physician.

True

The purpose of a laboratory report is to indicate the patient's diagnosis.

False

A patient who is fasting in preparation for a laboratory test is permitted to drink diet soda.

False

A small sample taken from the body to represent the nature of the whole is known as a specimen.

True

A laboratory report marked QNS means that the patient did not prepare properly.

False

Fecal occult blood testing is an example of a CLIA-waived test.

True

The purpose of quality control is to prevent accidents in the laboratory.

False

Laboratory tests are most frequently ordered by the physician to assist in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions.

True

A laboratory directory indicates the patient preparation required for laboratory tests.

True

Laboratory tests termed profiles contain a number of different tests.

True

A lipid profile includes a test for glucose.

False

The purpose of patient preparation for a laboratory test is to ensure the test results fall within normal range.

False

A comprehensive metabolic profile requires that the patient fast.

True

Antibiotics taken by the patient before the collection of a throat specimen for culture may result in a false-positive result.

False

The purpose of CLIA is to prevent exposure of employees to bloodborne pathogens.

False

If a POL is performing moderate-complexity tests, CLIA requires that two levels of controls be run daily.

True

In vitro means occurring in the living body.

False

What is the general purpose of a laboratory test?

To provide essential data needed by the physician to diagnose accurately and manage a patient's condition. Laboratory tests provide objective and quantitative information regarding the status of body conditions and functions.

List five specific uses of laboratory test results.

To assist in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions; to evaluate the patient's progress and to regulate treatment;to establish a patient's baseline; to prevent or reduce the severity of disease; to fulfill a requirement by state law.

What is the purpose of performing a routine test?

To assist in the early detection of disease.

What information is included in a laboratory directory?

Names of tests performed by the laboratory, normal range for each test, instructions on completion of forms,patient preparation required for each test, supplies required for the collection of the specimen, amount and type required by the laboratory, techniques to employ for the collection of the specimen, proper handling and storage of the specimen, instructions for transporting specimens.

What is the purpose of a laboratory request?

Provides the outside laboratory with essential information required for accurate testing, reporting of results, and billing.

What is the reason for indicating the following information on the laboratory request form?

a. Patient's age and gender: The normal range for some tests varies depending on the patient's age and gender.
b. Date and time of collection of the specimen: Provides the laboratory with information regarding the freshness of the specimen.
c. Source of the specimen: Identifies the source of the specimen; in many cases, the source dictates the test method used to evaluate the specimen.
d. Physician's clinical diagnosis: Assists the laboratory in correlating laboratory data with the needs of the physician; assures laboratory personnel that the tests are within the framework of the diagnosis; alerts laboratory personnel to the presence of a dangerous pathogen.
e. Any medications the patient is taking: Certain medications interfere with the accuracy and validity of test results.

What tests are included in the following profiles?

a. Comprehensive metabolic profile: Albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT),
aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium, carbon dioxide, chloride,
creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, total protein.
b. Hepatic profile: Albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate
aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, total protein.
c. Prenatal profile: ABO grouping and Rh typing, antibody screen, CBC, HBsAg, rubella antibodies, syphilis serology.
d. Lipid profile: Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol (calculation),
total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

What information is included on laboratory reports?

The name, address, and telephone number of the laboratory; the physician's name and address; the patient's age, name, and gender; a patient accession number; the date the specimen was received by the laboratory; the date the results were reported by the laboratory; the names of the tests performed; the results of the tests; and the normal
range for each test performed.

Why must the test results of specimens tested by an outside laboratory be compared with the normal ranges
supplied by the laboratory?

The normal range varies slightly from one laboratory to another depending on the test method, equipment, and
reagents used to perform the test.

Why do some laboratory tests require advance patient preparation?

Certain factors affect the results of certain tests; patient preparation is required to obtain a quality specimen
suitable for testing that leads to accurate results.

Why is it important to explain the reason for the advance preparation to the patient?

The patient is more likely to comply with the preparation required.

What is a specimen?

A small sample or part taken from the body to represent the nature of the whole.

List 10 examples of specimens.

Blood, urine, feces, sputum, cervical and vaginal scraping of cells, a sample of a secretion or discharge from
various parts of the body (nose, throat, wound, ear, eye, vagina, urethra), gastric juice, cerebrospinal fluid,
pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, and tissue biopsy specimens.

Why must a specimen be properly handled and stored?

To preserve the in vivo qualities of the specimen.

What are the six basic steps involved in testing a specimen?

The amount of specimen required for the test is measured out of the specimen sample.
Chemical reagents required for the test are combined with the specimen.
If necessary, the specimen reagents are processed further.
The substance undergoing assessment is manually or automatically measured or identified.
The results are obtained through a direct readout or a mathematic calculation.
The results are recorded on a laboratory report form.

What is the purpose of quality control?

To ensure that test results are reliable and valid, and that errors that may interfere with obtaining accurate test
results are detected and eliminated.

List four quality control methods that should be employed in testing a specimen.

Using standards and controls; discarding outdated reagents; following the procedure exactly; performing tests in
duplicate; periodically checking the accuracy of the test results with a reference laboratory; maintaining
equipment.

List 10 laboratory safety guidelines that should be followed in the medical office to prevent accidents from
occurring.

Carefully arranging glassware to prevent breakage.
Removing glassware carefully.
Disposing of broken glassware in a special container.
Ensuring all reagent bottles are clearly and properly labeled.
Reattaching loose labels immediately.
Recapping reagent bottles immediately after using.
Following the OSHA Standard when collecting and handling laboratory specimens.
Washing hands immediately if they touch the specimen.
Avoiding hand-to-mouth contact while working with specimens.
Immediately cleaning up any specimen spilled on a worktable and cleansing the table with a disinfectant.
Properly disposing of all contaminated needles, syringes, specimen containers, and infectious waste.
Covering breaks in the skin with a bandage.
Ensuring all specimen containers are tightly capped.
Handling laboratory equipment and supplies properly as indicated by the manufacturer.

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