World History Chapter 19

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Glencoe World History

capital

money available for investment

Enclosure movement

in Great Britain during the 1700s, Parlamentary decree that allowed fencing off of common lands, forcing many peasants to move to town

Entrepreneur

person interested in finding new business opportunities and new ways to make profits

Cottage Industry

method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes

Puddling

process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron

Industrial capitalism

economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing

Socialism

system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production

conservatism

political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion

Principle of intervention

idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments

Liberalism

a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties - the basic rights of all people - should be protected

universal male suffrage

the right of all males to vote in elections

multinational state

a state in which people of many nationalities live

militarism

reliance on military strength

kaiser

German for "caesar," the title of the emperors of the Second German Empire

plebiscite

a popular vote

emancipation

the act of setting free

abolitionism

a movement to end slavery

secede

Withdraw

romanticism

an intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing

secularization

indifference to or rejection of religion or religious consideration

organic evolution

the principle set forth by Darwin that every plant or animal has evolved, or changed, over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life to more complex forms

natural selection

the principle set forth by Darwin that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others, in popular terms, survival of the fittest

realism

mid-nineteenth century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was

James Watt

Scottish engineer who, in 1782, made changes to the steam engine which enabled it to drive machinery to spin cotton, thus improving production

Manchester

rich cotton-manufacturing city in England

Liverpool

thriving port in England

Robert Fulton

American inventor who built the first paddle-wheel steamboat in 1807

Robert Owen

Utopian socialist who set up a flourishing community in New Lanark, Scotland

Congress of Vienna

Peace Treaty designed by heads of European powers in 1814 (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) which rearranged territories after Napoleon's defeat to form a new balance of power

Klemens von Metternich

Austrian foreign minister; most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna

Vienna

city in Austria that hosted the Congress of Vienna in 1814

Bill of Rights

American written statement of fundamental rights and privileges for an individual

Louis-Napoleon

elected president of France's Second Republic in 1848 after the French Revolution; the nephew of Napoleon

German Confederation

Thirty-eight independent German states recognized by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 of which Austria and Prussia had the greatest powers

Prague

city in Bohemia (now the Czech Republic)

Piedmont

northern Italian state

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot who unified Italy

Otto von Bismarck

Prussian prime minister in 1860s who governed Prussia without parliament's approval and forced war first with the Austrians and then the French (Franco-Prussian War in 1870) where France was forced to relinquish Alsace and Lorraine. Prussia was then the strongest power in Europe.

Alsace

province of France turned over to Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War in 1871

Lorraine

province of France turned over to Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War in 1871

Queen Victoria

British queen from 1837-1901 with the longest reign in English history who helped to stabilize the economy with continued improvements as a result of the Industrial Revolution. In 1876, she also assumed the title of Empress of India.

Budapest

capital of Hungary

Czar Alexander II

ruler of Russia who freed the serfs in 1861

Ludwig van Beethoven

German composer known for his classical symphonies; considered one of the greatest composers who continued to compose after he became deaf

Louis Pasteur

French biologist whose discovery of microorganisms in fermentation led to pasteurization and who also proposed the germ theory of disease which advanced modern scientific medical practices

Charles Darwin

British scientist who formulated the theory of evolution by natural selection

Charles Dickens

famous British novelist who wrote realistic novels focusing on the lower and middle classes of England's early Industrial Age; wrote Oliver Twist and David Copperfield

Staples

the major food product for a country in Great Britain it was potatoes.

England-birthplace-industrial movement

They were the birthplace of the industrial movement because they had very good farming techniques, they had a lot of money, and new machines and factories. They also had a lot of peasants that started the industrial working class and they had a lot of natural resources

Spinning Jenny

one of the reasons the cottage industry falls; it also increases the speed to produce a product

The Rocket

the most efficient train for its time it carried tons of product and traveled 16mph

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