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significant art contents of the Lascaux caves

cave paintings of hunting scenes

New Kingdom Pharaoh advocating monotheism; his queen was Nefertiti

Akhenaton (Amenhotep)

hero of the most famous Sumerian Epic; quested for the meaning of life

Gilgamesh

system of writing (wedge shaped) used by ancient Sumerians

Cuneiform

author of the law code of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi

palace in the most important city of Minoan civilization

Knossos

author of the Iliad and the Odyssey

Homer

Greek word for city; used for the independent city-states

Polis

male standing statue, usually nude, made in early Archaic Greece

Kouros

three orders of columns in Greek architecture

Doric, Ionic, Corinthian

Greek lyric poet, first woman to leave a literary record; from Lesbos

Sappho

First Greek historian ("father of history"); author of the History of the Persian Wars

Herodotus

Greek word for pride or arrogance

Hubris

art medium of Myron and Phidias who created the high classical blend of realism and idealism

Sculpture

tragedies were written by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and ...

Euripides

part of Athens where temples were build on a high bluff

Acropolis

Athenian leader who established democracy

Pericles

the war Athens fought with Sparta was called the

Peloponnesian War

the building from the Classical Period that embodies the Greek Ideal

Parthenon

Thucydides wrote

History of the Peloponnesian Wars

which famous Greek philosopher was executed and what for

Socrates...treason, corruption of youth

3 works of Plato

Apology, Republic, Phaedo

student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great

Aristotle

Alexander's father was --- ,and he was assassinated in 336 B.C.

Philip of Macedon

the later period of Greek art (after Classical) showing more emotion is called

Hellenistic

not known for its originality, Rome's strength was in ____ and ____ elements of other cultures

absorbing and assimilating

the first period of Roman government

Kingdom

the second period of Roman government that ended with the assassination of Caesar

Republic

the third period of Roman government

Empire

Epicureanism

rejected divine force, preached against superstition, the best life was one of pleasure

Stoicism

trust in divine providence and reason, desire only what is under your control, virtue, condoned suicide

in 79 A.D. __erupted

Mount Vesuvius

Roman city destroyed by a volcano

Pompeii

author of Meditations

Marcus Aurelius
(A.D. 121-180)

author of the Aeneid

Virgil

Roman author of scathing satires

Juvenal
(A.D. 60-130)

author of Natural History (dedicated to Emperor Vespasian) also wrote letters, one described the __and was his last

Pliny the Younger
(A.D. 62-114)
the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, he was an eye witness from a boat in the Bay of Naples

pax romana

time of "Roman Peace" 1st and 2nd centuries A.D., established by Caesar Augustus

ara pacis

Altar of Augustan peace

Via Flaminia

ancient Roman road from the city north through the mountains to the Adriatic Sea

singular of fora, building in Rome

Forum

3 features of the Pantheon

domed, dedicated to all god, lighted with an oculus in the roof, portico with granite columns

what the cities of Joppa and Caesarea have in common

on the coast of Israel

river that connects the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea

Jordan

what Masada is famous for

Jewish rebels held the Romans off in the mountain fortress for 2 years

Old Testament historical periods:
Period of the Patriarchs
Period of the ______________________
Period of the Conquest
The United Monarchy
divided Kingdom and _______________
The Return

Exodus, Exile

the word "bible" means

book

the Bible is a moral guide not a philosophical treatise (true or false)

true

having one god

monotheism

story of the life of Jesus is in 4 books called the

Gospels

the gospels were written by

Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John

Saul of Tarsus was later called __ and known for...

Paul, Missionary work

underground cemeteries

Catacombs

subjects of early Christian art

good shepherd, mother and child, miracles

why Crucifixion was not a subject in early Christian art

not attractive to converts

first Roman emperor to officially embrace Christianity

Constantine

why fish are significant symbols in Christianity

Greek word for Fish which is an acronym for "Jesus Christ, God's Son, Savior"

the "City of God" was written by

Augustine of Hippo

was Augustine of Hippo's view of history linear or cyclical? Why is that important?

Linear- In a straight line from God and ends at the last judgment, rejects cyclical Pagan notions

(city) the center of Imperial life in the Roman Empire in the early 5th c.?

Byzantium

2 famous rulers in Byzantium were ___ and __

Justinian and Theodora

Justinian's legal achievement

Organize and codify Roman law

Justinian's architectural achievements

Hagia Sophia

name given to the sequences of the various parts of the worship service

liturgy

Constantinople fell to ____ this lead to...

the Turks, the city becoming Muslim and Hagia Sophia a mosque, city renamed Istanbul

city in Italy that became the center of the church and empire for a while

Ravenna

small pieces of stone used to make a mosaic

Tesserae

how the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna differs from the traditional basilica design

it is an octagon and not cruciform like most basilica-styled churches, it has a short nave

inspired Charlemagne's church at Aachen?

San Vitale in Ravenna

difference between a church and a cathedral?

Cathedrals have Bishops

define the term Icon

painting of a religious figure used for public worship

define the term iconoclast

someone who engages in the destruction of religious symbols or established dogma or beliefs

the trivium quadrivium were

courses of study, heart of Medieval school curriculum

precise, rounded form of lettering sponsored by Charlemagne

Carolingian

monasticism comes from the Greek Monos meaning

alone

asceticism means

denial of comforts for the purpose of focused devotion

Pope Gregory I contributed to the music of the Catholic Church by codifying its chants; later called ___ chants, in honor of his work.

Gregorian

a capella means

without musical accompaniment

chansons de geste are

songs of deeds, stories of heroes, especially Charlemagne

three themes of Everyman

death comes for every man, earthly things abandon the dying, the importance of the sacraments, good deeds are what stay with you

the poem that celebrates a battle between the Frankish army and a Muslim force at the Spanish border is

Song of Roland

ivory carvings were often used for

book covers

Romanesque architecture saw a marked increase in the use of

heavy stone arches

(city) from 1150 to 1300, the center of Western civilization was

Paris

troubadours were

singers of secular songs

universities in gothic times primarily trained

administrators

the Divine Comedy was written by

Dante Alighieri from Florence

Gothic translates as

barbarous, rude, not following classical models

the central cathedral in Paris is

Notre Dame

Chaucer wrote

Canterbury Tales

Boccaccio wrote

Decameron

Saint Thomas Aquinas tried to reconcile __ and __

reason and revelation, the human and the supernatural

a guild is

a fraternal society of craftsmen or merchants

the aisle that goes around the apse and behind the high altar is called the

ambulatory

thin walls & stained-glass windows were made possible by

buttresses

early churches and later cathedrals were called cruciform because

they were in the form of a cross

space in the ceiling formed by cris-crossing arches

Vault

gargoyles were used for

drainage and to scare away demons

the part of a church one enters before going into the nave

narthex

both Boccaccio and Chaucer satirized

greed and corruption in the church

Petrarch's literary reputation is based primarily on his

Sonnets (songs)

English and Italian sonnets differ in that

English sonnets end with a couplet

who...
had a deep knowledge of Latin literature
was an important civil servant
made a translation of the "Romance of the Rose"
served as a customs agent

Chaucer

Cimabue's Crucifixion is notable for

realism and sophistication

one of Giotto's greatest contributions was his

sense of depth and perspective

Simone Martini was willing to sacrifice naturalism to

surface brilliance

Duomo is the Italian word for

Cathedral

flagellants were

people who whipped themselves out of religious devotion; often hysterical about catastrophe

During the late 1300s, the papacy was moved from Rome to _ in _

Avignon, France

when the papacy moved to Avignon, the time period was called

The Great Schism

the love of Petrarch's life was the lady he called

Laura

Decameron is Greek for _ days.

Ten days

treatise by Christine de Pisan

The Book of the City of Ladies

painters of the Italo-Byzantine tradition

Nicola and Giovanni Pisano

painters of the International Style

Melchior Broederlam, Limbourg brothers,

Sienese painters

Duccio, Simone Martini, Ambrogio Lorenzetti

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