Honors Biology Semester 1 Test (Macromolecules)

44 terms by ariana_jones 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Atom

Basic unit of matter. Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Proton

Positively charged particles with the same mass as a neutron. Makes up the nucleus with the neutrons.

Neutron

Neutrally charged particles with the same mass as a proton. Makes up the nucleus with the protons.

Electron

Negatively charged particles. Orbits the nucleus.

Covalent Bond

A bond that forms when electrons are shared between atoms.

Ionic Bond

A bond that forms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

Molecule

The smallest unit of most compounds.

Polar Molecule

When a molecule (water) has an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. (positive and negative charged ends)

Hydrogen Bond

A weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms

Cohesion

An attraction between molecules of the same substance.

Adhesion

An attraction between molecules of different substances.

Surface Tension

Water's cohesion cause molecules on the surface of water to be drawn inward, which is why drops of water form beads on a smooth surface.

Capillary Action

One of the forces that draw water out of the roots of a plant and up into its stems and leaves.

pH Scale

Indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.

Acid

Contains higher concentrations of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values below 7.

Base

Contains lower concentrations of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values above 7.

Neutral

Has a pH of exactly 7.

Buffer

Weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.

Macromolecules

Large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together.

Carbon

Have four valence electrons. Can bond with many elements. Can bond with itself.

Four Bond

Carbon atoms have four valence electrons. Each electron can join with an electron from another atom to for a strong covalent bond.

Monomer

The smaller units that join together with polymers to create macromolecules.

Polymer

The larger units that join together with monomers to create macromolecules.

Carbohydrate

Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms with a ratio of 1:2:1. Used as the main source of energy and for structural purposes in living things. (Quick energy)

Monosaccharide

The monomer of carbohydrates.

Polysaccharide

The polymer of carbohydrates.

Benedict's Solution

Tests for simple sugars (carbohydrates)

Iodine Solution

Tests for starch (carbohydrates)

Lipids

Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Common categories are fats, oils, and waxes. Used to store energy, in important parts of biological membranes, and for waterproof coverings.

Glycerol

Combines with fatty acids to form lipids.

Fatty Acids

When combined with Glycerol, lipids are formed.

Saturated

Fats with the maximum number of hydrogens.

Unsaturated

Fatty acids that contain more than one double bond.

Sudan 4

Tests for lipids.

Proteins

Made mostly of nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Used for structure and support, help to fight disease, carry out cell functions, and form bones and muscles.

Amino Acids

Linked by peptide bonds are the monomers of proteins.

Enzyme

Proteins that speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions that take place in cells and lower activation energy. Temperature and pH affect how well it works.

Substrates

The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

Active Site

The place where substrates bind to the enzyme.

Biurets

Tests for proteins.

Nucleic Acids

Made mostly of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. Used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.

Nucleotides

Consist of three parts: a 5 - carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. Monomer of Nucleic Acids

RNA

Sugar ribonucleic acid. One kind of nucleic acid.

DNA

Sugar deoxyribonucleic acid. One kind of nucleic acid.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set