What does the Hypothalamus Secrete?
Releasing Hormones and Inhibiting Hormones.
What is a Releasing Hormone?
Releases what is implied in the name.
What is a Inhibiting Hormone?
Inhibits what is implied in the name.
What does the Anterior Pituitary (Hypophysis) Secrete?
Growth Hormone (GH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/Corticotropin (ACTH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone/Gonadotropin (FSH), Lutenizing Hormone (LH)/Gonadotropin, Prolactin (PRL).
What does Growth Hormone (GH) Affect?
Bone, Skeletal Muscle, Liver, Cartilage.
What is Growth Hormone (GH) Action?
Promote protein synthesis; encourages fats for fuel (lipolysis), inhibits glucose uptake.
What does Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) affect?
What is the action for TSH?
Stimulate normal development/activity.
What does Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/Corticotropin affect?
What is the action for ACTH and Corticotropin?
Adrenal cortex releases corticosteroids.
What do Follicle Stimulating Hormone/Gonadotropin affect?
What is the action of FSH and Gonadotropin?
Stimulate gamate (ova/sperm) production.
What does Lutenizing Hormone/Gonadotropin affect?
What is the action of LH and Gonadotropin?
In females works w FSH for maturation of ovarian follicle, alone triggers ovulation, promtes release estrogen/progesterone. In males stimulates testes to produce testosterone.
What does Prolactn affect?
What is the action of Prolactin?
Stimulates milk production.
What does the Posterior (Heurohypophysis) Store?
ADH and Oxytocin.
What does ADH affect?
Kidneys, water balance.
What is the action of ADH?
Prevents urine formation, diuresis.
What does Oxytocin affect?
Smooth muscle in breasts and uterus.
What is the action of Oxytocin?
Uterine contractions during child birth, ejection of milk.
What does the Thyroid Secrete?
(TH) Thyroid Hormone - splits into T4 Thyroxine and T3 Triiodthyronine.
What does Thyroid hormones affect?
All of body.
What is the action of Thyroid Hormone?
Glucose oxidation, increase metabolic rate, heat production, partially involved in maintaining BP, regulating tissue growth, developing sketal/nervous systems, maturation/reproductive capabilities (libido).
What do the Parafollicular Cells Secrete?
What is the affect of Calcitonin?
Skeleton (active mostly in kids).
What is the action of Calcitonin?
Inhibits osteoclast activity, inhibits release of CA from bone matrix, stimulates Ca uptake into bone matrix.
What does the Parathyroid Gland Secrete?
(PTH) Parathyroid Hormone.
What is the affect of PTH?
Ca balance of blood.
What is the action of PTH?
Stimulates osteoclasts, enhances reabsorption of Ca and secretion of P by kidneys, increases absorption of Ca by intestinal mucosa.
What does the Adrenal Cortex Layer Glomerulosa Secrete?
Mineralcorticoids - Aldosterone.
What is the affect of Mineralcorticoids?
Electrolytes in the ECF.
What is the action of Mineralcorticoids?
Maintains Na balance (by reducing excretion of Na from body), stimulates reabsorption of Na by the kidneys.
What does the Adrenal Cortex Layer Zona Fasciculata Secrete?
Glucocorticoids - Cortisol.
What is the affect of Glucocortioids?
What is the action of Glucocorticoids?
Helps body resist stress: keeping blood sugar levels constant, maintaining blood volume/preventing water shift into tissue; Cortisol provokes gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose from non carbs), rises in blood glucose/fatty acids/amino acids.
What does Adrenal Cortex Layer Zona Reticularis Secrete?
Gonadocorticoids - Andorgens.
What does Gonadocorticoids affect?
What is the action of Gonadocotricoids?
Contribute to onset of puberty/apperance of secondary sex characteristics; sex drive in males/females.
What does the Adrenal Medulla Secrete?
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine.
What does Epinephrine affect?
Cardiovascular system - heart/metabolic activities.
What is the action of Epinephrine?
Blood glucose levels rise, heart beats faster, blood diverted to brain, heart and skeletal muscles.
What is the affect of Norepinephrine?
Cardiovascular system - peripheral.
What is the action of Norepinephrine?
Peripheral vasoconstriction, raises blood pressure.
What does the Pineal Gland Secrete?
What does Melatonin affect?
What is the action of Melatonin?
Affects day/niht cycles, physiological processes that show rhythmic variations (body temp/sleep/appetite).
What does the Thymus Secrete?
What does Thymopoietins and Thymosins affect?
What is the action of Thymopoietins and Thymosins?
Develop T lymphocytes.
What does the Pancreas secrete?
Glucagon and Insulun.
What does Glucagon affect?
What is the affect of Glucagon?
Glycogenolysis (breakdown glycogen into glucose); Glucogenesis (synth of glucose from lactic acid/non carbs); release of glucose to blood from lover cells.
What does Insulin affect?
What is the action of Insulin?
Lowers blood glucose levels, enhances transport of glucose into blody cells, counters metabolic activity that would increase blood glucose levels.
What do the Gonads Secrete?
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone.
What do Estrogen and Progesterone affect?
What is the action of Estrogen and Progesterone?
Mature reproductive organs, appearance of secondary sex characteristics, breast development, cyclic changes in uterine mucosa.
What does Testosterone affect?
What is the action of Testosterone?
Mature reproductive organs, appearance of secondary sex characteristics, libido, sperm production, maintains function of sex organs.