Digestive system - Andy

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A review of terms and information regarding the digestive system.

amino acids

Proteins are made of __________ __________.

carbohydrates

The main source of energy for your body is __________.

lipids

Fats are also called __________.

unsaturated

Fats are classified as __________ if they have any double bonds.

saturated

Fats are classified as __________ if they have no double bonds.

cholesterol

Saturated fats are associated with high __________.

digestion

The process that breaks down food into small molecules that can be absorbed by blood is called __________.

mechanical

When food is chewed, mixed, and churned __________ digestion is taking place.

chemical

When food is broken down by enzymes or acid, __________ digestion is taking place.

enzyme

An __________ is a type of protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction in your body.

enzymes

Many __________ are involved in the chemical digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

mouth

The __________ is where digestion begins.

esophagus

The __________ is a muscular tube that moves food to the stomach using peristalsis, or waves of muscle contractions.

peristalsis

Food moves through your digestive system by waves of muscle contractions called __________.

stomach

In the __________, food is mechanically digested by peristalsis and chemically digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.

mechanically

In the stomach, food is __________ digested by peristalsis and chemically digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.

chemically

In the stomach, food is mechanically digested by peristalsis and __________ digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.

small intestine

The __________ __________ is lined with villi which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.

villi

The small intestine is lined with __________ which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.

blood

Once nutrients are absorbed by the villi they are then transported to all body cells by the __________.

surface area

The small intestine contains villi which increase __________ __________ to help with the absorption of nutrients.

large intestine

The __________ __________ absorbs water from undigested food.

chyme

The food liquid produced by the stomach is called __________.

water

The main function of the large intestine is to re-absorb excess __________ before eliminating solid waste.

rectum

The __________ and anus control the release of solid wastes from the body.

Bacteria

__________ live in your large intestine and make vitamins from undigested food.

esophagus

connects mouth to stomach.

stomach

kills germs, breaks up food, digests proteins, and stores food.

small intestine

performs absorption through lining and chemical digestion. 6 meters in length contains the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

large intestine

(colon) solid matter passes through here, re-absorbs water.

rectum

the last section of the colon which eliminates feces.

liver

produces bile which breaks up fats and is stored in gallbladder until needed.

gall bladder

stores and concentrates bile until it is needed.

bile

A green fluid made from cholesterol and secreted by the liver. It is stored and concentrated in the gallbladder. Bile is an amphipathic molecule that is secreted into the small intestine when fats are present, and serves to emulsify the fats for better digestion by lipases. released into the duodenum.

digestive enzymes

trypsin- digests proteins
amylase - digests starch
Buffers- neutralizes acid from stomach

mouth

breaks up food, digests starch, moistens food

bolus

a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed

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