the physiological and psychological response to a condition that threatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaptation or adjustment.
A response to stress in which the sympathetic nervous system triggers the release of hormones that prepare the body to fight or flee.
Any stimulus or event capable of producing physical or emotional stress.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
Holmes and Rahe's measure of stress, which ranks 43 life events from most to least stressful and assigns a point value to each.
Little stressors, including the irritating demands that can occur daily, thatmay cause more stress than major life changes do.
The positive experiences in life, which may neutralize the effects of many hassles.
The stress that arises from knowing that choosing one alternative means foregoing another.
A conflict arising from having to choose between equally desirable alternatives.
A conflict arising from having to choose between undesirable alternatives.
A conflict arising when the same choice has both desirable and undesirable features.
Lack of energy, exhaustion, and pessimism that result from chronic stress.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
A prolonged and severe stress reaction to a catastrophic event or to severe, chronic stress.
A collective term for the economic, occupational, and educational factors that influence an individual's relative position in society.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
The predictable sequence of reactions (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages) that organisms show in response to stress.
The first stage of the general adaptation syndrome, in which the person experiences a burst of energy that aids in dealing with the stressful situation.
The second stage of the general adaptation syndrome, when there are intense physiological efforts to either resist or adapt to the stressor.
The third stage of the general adaptation syndrome, which occurs if the organism fails in its efforts to resist the stressor.
A cognitive evaluation of a potentially stressful event to determine whether its effect is positive, irrelevant, or negative.
A cognitive evaluation of available resources and options prior to deciding how to deal with a stressor.
Efforts through action and thought to deal with demands that are perceived as taxing or overwhelming.
A direct response aimed at reducing, modifying, or eliminating a source of stress.
A response involving reappraisal of a stressor to reduce its emotional impact.
Active measures taken in advance of a potentially stressful situation in order to prevent its occurrence or to minimize its consequences.
A perspective that explains illness solely in terms of biological factors.
A perspective that focuses on health as well as illness and holds that both are determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors.
The subfield within psychology that is concerned with the psychological factors that contribute to health, illness, and recovery.
Type A Behavior Pattern
A behavior pattern marked by a sense of time urgency, impatience, excessive competitiveness, hostility, and anger; considered a risk factor in coronary heart disease.
Type B Behavior Pattern
A behavior pattern marked by a relaxed, easygoing approach to life, without the time urgency, impatience, and hostility of the Type A pattern.
Type D Behavior Pattern
A behavior pattern marked by chronic emotional distress combined with a tendency to suppress negative emotions.
The white blood cells - including B cells and T cells - that are the key components of the immune system.
A field in which psychologists, biologists, and medical researchers combine their expertise to study the effects of psychological factors on the immune system.
A combination of three psychological qualities - commitment, control, and challenge - shared by people who can handle high levels of stress and remain healthy.
Tangible and/or emotional support provided in time of need by family members, friends, and others; the feeling of being loved, valued, and cared for by those toward whom we feel a similar obligation.
Exercise that uses the large muscle groups in continuous, repetitive action and increases oxygen intake and breathing and heart rates.
Any treatment or therapy that has not been scientifically demonstrated to be effective.