Chapter 8 plate tectonics

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collision boundary

A convergent boundary where two continents have come together and are welded into a single, larger continent

continental drift

A hypothesis that the Earth's continents move on the Earth's surface

convergent boundary

A boundary between two plates that are moving towards each other

craton

The ancient core of a continent, which is tectonically stable

deep-sea trench

A long, narrow, steep-sided trough that runs parallel to continental margins or volcanic island chains

divergent boundary

a boundary between two lithospheric plates that are moving apart

mantle convection

A process by which heat from Earth's inner and outer cores is transferred through the mantle

mid-ocean ridge

A long chain of mountains with a central rift valley that is located along a divergent boundary on the ocean floor

Pangaea

The name of a hypothetical landmass consisting of all the continents welded together

plate tectonics

The theory that the lithosphere is made of plates that move and interact with each other at their boundaries

ridge push

A force that is exerted by the cooling, subsiding rock on the spreading lithospheric plates at a mid-ocean ridge

rift

A crack or opening in the Earth's crust

rift valley

A deep valley at a point where two lithospheric plates are moving apart, such as a mid ocean ridge

slab pull

A force at a subduction boundary that the sinking edge of the subducting plate exerts on the rest of the plate

subduction boundary

A convergent boundary where an oceanic plate is plunging beneath another

terrane

A large block of lithospheric plate that has been moved, often over a distance of thousands of kilometers, and attached to the edge of a continents

transform boundary

A boundary between two plates that are sliding by each other

contintental drift

Alfred Wegener was a German scientist who proposed the hypothesis called _________________ ____________.

continents

Wegener's hypothesis was not accepted by the scientific community because he did not explain how the _______________________ moved

South America and Africa

Wegener used the outline of the continents of __________________ ______________ and ___________________ so support his theory that the continents used to be together.The continents looked like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle

Fossil / climate

Wegener used similarities in the shapes of the continents, and ___________ evidence and _____________ evidence to suport his theory that the continents where once joined

mid ocean ridge

The discovery of this helped support the theory of plate tectonics

plate boundaries

Earthquake and volcanic activity support the theory of plate tectonics because they mark the locations of __________________ ________________.

ring of fire

Name of the area of concentrated volcanic and earthquake activity located in the Pacific Ocean

mid ocean ridge

The age of the rock on the ocean floor gets older with increasing distance from the ______________ _______________ __________________.

dense

When two oceanic plates converge, the more __________________ oceanic plate subducts

mountains

When two continental plates converge, the likely feature will high continental _________________

continental

Volcanic mountain chains form when an oceanic plate subducts beneath a/an ________________ plate

oceanic

Volcanic island chains are likely to form when an oceanic plate subducts beneath a/an __________________ plate

earthquake

subduction boundaries have both eartyquake and volcanic activity, but transform boundaries and collision boundaries only have _____________________ activity

collision

The Appalachian Mountains formed from a ___________________ boundary between North America and Africa.

Himalaya

Mountain chain currently being formed from the result of a collision boundary

Terranes

Sources of continental growth include deep-sea sediments, igneous rock, river sediments, and _________________________.

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