Organized shipborne commerce on the Nile River!
Cretans and Phoenicians
First regular ocean traders
Among the first to use celestial navigation
This type of navigation relies on using the stars to determine ones relative position on earth
Invented the chronometer
Earliest form of navigational or oceanographic map made of bamboo and shells
Integrated science studying the sea that including biology, chemistry, physics, and geology
Earth is about ___________ water.
Of the water found on earth, about _________ is found in oceans.
This was the name given by the Vikings to Newfoundland.
The invention of the __________ and central rudder, and improvements in sail design were contributions made by the Chinese.
This Viking is thought to have been the first to land on North America.
First to calculate the circumference of the Earth
Set up a centre for marine science and navigation
_____________ was the first to sail around the world.
John Harrison invented the ________________
Published the first chart of any current
First to orient charts by placing east on the right hand side and north at the top
Father of physical oceanography
The US Exploring Expedition explored ______________
This expedition started the science of oceanography
This expedition in 1968 found evidence to support sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
This is used to map the deep ocean floor.
Technological advances in food storage and ship design in the 1900s made these expeditions possible.
Make charts of the sea
This person's estimate of the circumference of the earth was used by Christopher Columbus
European who New Zealand
European who mapped the Great Barrier Reef
In early history, the people who voyaged in order to show off their dynasty and riches were the ______________
The process (or result) of applying the scientific method to the ocean, its surroundings and the life within it is called _________________
This type of oceanographer studies teh aspects of the ocean such as tides, currents and ocean circulation
The idea that the universe was created from a central point that started expanding is referred to as the _____________
The Milky Way is a specific ________________
Massive spheres of gases giving off light by fusing hydrogen atoms into helium are known as _____________
The early stage of a star is refered to as ______________
Cold clouds of dust and gases within a galaxy is refered to as a ______________
The process in which the earth develops different layers, due to the denser materials sinking to the centre and the lighter materials rising to the top is called ______________
An educated guess made to explain a phenomenon is called a ________________
The Big Bang is proposed to have occured _________ billion years ago.
Earth was created ______________ billion years ago.
The vast body of saline water that occupies the depressions of the earth's surface is called the _______________
Sir James Ross
Took the earliest depth measurements
study sea floor sediments, plate tectonics, history of the earth and atmosphere
study chemical composition of the oceans and their relationships to geology and biology.
explored the Mediterranean and Atlantic-noticed a current running in and out. named it "okeanos" ocean was derived from this.
First Library of Alexandria
contained written info on items of interest to seafarers. All ships that entered the harbor were recorded and a copy of records was kept there.
during the dark ages they wet on periodic raids. ships were so fast they could sail up rivers
discovered the New world by accident. the native americans had lived there for at least 11,000 years.
studied ship's logs with wind and temp data. assembled it into wind and current charts & issued them to sailors for giving him their logs when they returned.
Charles Thomson and John Murray led first scientific oceanographic voyage. 4 yrs. thought they was no life below 1,800ft. able to sample down to 26,850ft. found 4,717 new species. took 15 yrs. to produce the "Challenger Report" 50 volume report.
study how to build ocean going to vessels, harbors, oil platforms, etc.
a group of planets that orbit around a fixed point of gravity EX. sun
huge group of stars, dust, gas, and other celestial bodies bound together by gravitational force
Observations show that the universe is _____________
a large, hot ball of gases, which is held together by gravity and gives off its own light