how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify (number of items or to some other way of denominating the value of a collection or group of items.)
an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone;
The first stage of Piaget's theory lasts from birth to approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. ( looking, sucking, grasping, and listening)
occurs between ages two and six. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. (do not yet understand concrete logic)
begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.
begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.
An organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning
is when people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking.
is a change in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.
is an activity that permits the construction of cognitive schemes through repetition of a chance motor event.
secondary circular reactions
are repeated actions meant to bring about a desirable consequence on the outside world.
where several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem. (coordinate moving an uninteresting object out of the way to get a more desirable one)
the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen.
tertiary circular reactions
involve the deliberate variation of actions to bring desirable consequences
an internal image of a past event or object
in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act.
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
The initial, major stage of cognitive development in Piaget's theory!
Substage 1: Simple Reflexes
first month of life. various reflexes determine the infant's interaction with world.
Substage 2: first habits and primary circular reactions
From 1-4 months of age coordination of actions (grasping and sucking an object)
Substage 3: secondary circular reactions
4-8 months of age. begins to act on world (e.g., rattles rattle)
Substage 4: coordination of secondary circular reactions
8-12 months of age. (GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR and OBJECT PERMANENCE)
Substage 5: tertiary circular reactions
12-18 months of age
Substage 6: beginning of thought
18-24 months of age. Can image outcomes (ball rolling behind coach)
INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACHES to Cognitive Development
The model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information
is the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory.
refers to the maintenance of material saved in memory.
is the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used.
Processes that require little attention are
Processes that require large amounts of attention are
is the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved.
the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to three years of age.
an overall development score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, advaptive behavior, and personal - social.
BAYLEY SCALES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT
measure the mental and motor development and test the behavior of infants from 2 to 42 months of age.
the memory of and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen, also relate to intelligence
measures correlate moderately well with later measures of intelligence.
is the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, and provides the basis for communication.
refers to the basic sounds of language, called phonemes, that can be combined to produce words and sentences
are the smallest language unit that has meaning
are the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences.
Communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitations, and other non-linguistic means.
is when infants make speech-like but meaningless sounds at about 2-3 months continuing to about 1 year. (universal phenomenon)
First words are generally spoken between 10-14 months. one-word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine
where words not critical to the message are left out.
using words too restrictively, is common.
using words too broadly, is also common.
Chomsky argues that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure called
LANGUAGE-ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD),
a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit the understanding of language.
a type of speech directed towards infants, characterized by short, simple sentences.
a style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects(U.S.)
a style of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others(Japanese)