Psy ch. 5

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quantity

how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify (number of items or to some other way of denominating the value of a collection or group of items.)

quality

an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone;

Sensorimotor

The first stage of Piaget's theory lasts from birth to approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. ( looking, sucking, grasping, and listening)

Preoperational

occurs between ages two and six. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. (do not yet understand concrete logic)

Concrete Operations

begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.

Formal Operations

begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.

Schemas

An organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning

ASSIMILATION

is when people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking.

ACCOMMODATION

is a change in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.

CIRCULAR REACTION

is an activity that permits the construction of cognitive schemes through repetition of a chance motor event.

secondary circular reactions

are repeated actions meant to bring about a desirable consequence on the outside world.

GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR

where several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem. (coordinate moving an uninteresting object out of the way to get a more desirable one)

OBJECT PERMANENCE,

the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen.

tertiary circular reactions

involve the deliberate variation of actions to bring desirable consequences

MENTAL REPRESENTATION

an internal image of a past event or object

DEFERRED IMITATION

in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act.

SENSORIMOTOR STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

The initial, major stage of cognitive development in Piaget's theory!

Substage 1: Simple Reflexes

first month of life. various reflexes determine the infant's interaction with world.

Substage 2: first habits and primary circular reactions

From 1-4 months of age coordination of actions (grasping and sucking an object)

Substage 3: secondary circular reactions

4-8 months of age. begins to act on world (e.g., rattles rattle)

Substage 4: coordination of secondary circular reactions

8-12 months of age. (GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR and OBJECT PERMANENCE)

Substage 5: tertiary circular reactions

12-18 months of age

Substage 6: beginning of thought

18-24 months of age. Can image outcomes (ball rolling behind coach)

INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACHES to Cognitive Development

The model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information

Encoding

is the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory.

Storage

refers to the maintenance of material saved in memory.

Retrieval

is the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used.

automatic

Processes that require little attention are

controlled

Processes that require large amounts of attention are

MEMORY

is the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved.

INFANTILE AMNESIA

the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to three years of age.

DEVELOPMENTAL QUOTIENT

an overall development score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, advaptive behavior, and personal - social.

BAYLEY SCALES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT

measure the mental and motor development and test the behavior of infants from 2 to 42 months of age.

VISUAL-RECOGNITION MEMORY

the memory of and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen, also relate to intelligence

INFORMATION-PROCESSING

measures correlate moderately well with later measures of intelligence.

LANGUAGE

is the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, and provides the basis for communication.

Phonology

refers to the basic sounds of language, called phonemes, that can be combined to produce words and sentences

Morphemes

are the smallest language unit that has meaning

Semantics

are the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences.

PRELINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION

Communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitations, and other non-linguistic means.

BABBLING

is when infants make speech-like but meaningless sounds at about 2-3 months continuing to about 1 year. (universal phenomenon)

HOLOPHRASES

First words are generally spoken between 10-14 months. one-word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine

TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH

where words not critical to the message are left out.

UNDEREXTENSION

using words too restrictively, is common.

OVEREXTENSION

using words too broadly, is also common.

UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR.

Chomsky argues that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure called

LANGUAGE-ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD),

a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit the understanding of language.

INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH,

a type of speech directed towards infants, characterized by short, simple sentences.

Referential Style

a style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects(U.S.)

Expressive Style

a style of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others(Japanese)

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