Examcram # 3
|non stress test for pregent mom||determines the movement of the fetus|
|paralytic ileus||Intestinal obstruction is a partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of the intestinal contents to pass through. Symptoms, Abdominal distention Abdominal fullness, gaseous, Abdominal pain and cramping, Breath odor, Constipation, Diarrhea, Vomiting|
|oliguria||is the decreased production of urine. The decreased production of urine may be a sign of dehydration, renal failure, hypovolemic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, or urinary obstruction/urinary retention.|
|Meconium stool||is the earliest stools of an infant. Unlike later feces, meconium is composed of materials ingested during the time the infant spends in the uterus. Meconium is almost sterile, unlike later feces, is viscous and sticky like tar, and has no odor. It should be completely passed by the end of the first few days of postpartum life, with the stools progressing toward yellow (digested milk).|
|Diabetic ketoacidosis s/s||polyuria (pee alot), polydipsia (drink alot) and polyphgia (eat alot)|
|Hypoglycemia s/s||weakness, tremors, profuse perspiaratiion and hunger|
|tetany s/s||uncontrollable muscle spasms, stridor, cyanosis and possibly asphyxia.|
|Pt shoudnt eat which food 48 hrs before taking a stool test||red meat, poultry, fish, turnips and horseradish.|
|mastectomy||is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.|
|Babinski's sign||The lateral side of the sole of the foot is rubbed with a blunt instrument or device so as not to cause pain, discomfort or injury to the skin; the instrument is run from the heel along a curve to the toes. Flexor: the toes curve inward and the foot everts; this is the response seen in healthy adults (aka a "negative" Babinski). Extensor: the hallux dorsiflexes and the other toes fan out - the "positive Babinski's sign" indicating damage to the central nervous system. |
Infants will also show an extensor response. A baby's smaller toes will fan out and their big toe will dorsiflex slowly. This happens because the corticospinal pathways that run from the brain down the spinal cord are not fully myelinated at this age, so the reflex is not inhibited by the cerebral cortex.
|furosemide (Lasix)||Furosemide is a powerful diuretic that is used to treat excessive accumulation of fluid and/or swelling (edema) of the body caused by heart failure, cirrhosis, chronic kidney failure, and the nephrotic syndrome. It is sometimes used alone or in conjunction with other blood pressure pills to treat high blood pressure. Common side effects of furosemide include low blood pressure, dehydration and electrolyte depletion (for example, sodium, potassium).|
|Gestational hypertension||Gestational hypertension refers to hypertension with onset in the latter part of pregnancy (>20 weeks' gestation) without any other features of preeclampsia, and followed by normalization of the blood pressure postpartum.|
|Hydatidiform mole||is a rare mass or growth that forms inside the uterus at the beginning of a pregnancy. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease. Abnormal growth of the womb (uterus)|
|carbidopa and levodopa is used to treat||Parkinson's disease. The combination is utilized to selectively elevate the levels of dopamine in the brain without boosting them in the periphery. The purpose of this is to increase the effectiveness of levodopa and to avoid adverse peripherally-mediated side effects such as nausea and emesis.|
|gluten is||is a special type of protein that is commonly found in rye, wheat, and barley. Therefore, it is found in most types of cereals and in many types of bread. Not all foods from the grain family, however, contain glutenglutengluten. Examples of grains that do not have glutenglutengluten include wild rice, corn, buckwheat, millet, amaranth, quinoa, teff, oats, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.|
|celiac disease|| is an inherited, autoimmune disease in which the|
lining of the small intestine is damaged from eating gluten and other
proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, and possibly oats.
|amniotomy||surgical rupture of the fetal membranes to induce labor. In this procedure the bag of waters is artificially ruptured, using a crochet hook device.|
|Phases Of Labor The Early Phase: latent||During the early phase of labor, contractions are usually mild, and can be 15 to 20 minutes apart. These contractions, which can last as long as 90 seconds, can be uncomfortable, causing the expectant mother to feel crampy throughout her lower back and lower abdomen. The early phase of labor is also when an expectant mother may experience bloody show, or her bag of waters breaking. As this stage of labor progresses, the contractions become more frequent, as well as more intense. During this phase, the cervix dilates to 4 centimeters. |
Read more at Suite101: The Three Phases Of Labor http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/labor_delivery/86449#ixzz0gewR3G12
|Phases of Labor The Active Phase||During the active phase of labor, contractions become longer and more intense. Most contractions last as long as 45 seconds, and are three minutes apart. The cervix dilates from four to eight centimeters during this phase. If the bag of waters has not already broken, the treating doctor or midwife, will most likely break them at this time. The contractions during this phase are much more painful than in the early phase, and expectant mothers may try breathing techniques, massage, pressure or request pain medications.|
|Phases of Labor The Transition Phase:||During the transition phase of labor, contractions occur every two to three minutes. Each contraction can last up to 90 seconds. During this phase, the cervix dilates from eight to ten centimeters. During this phase of labor, the contractions are at their most intense. The expectant mother may become nauseous, as well as experience shaking, chills, sweats and the urge to push. Once the cervix is fully dilated and effaced, pushing can begin.|
|Duration of contraction||by measureing the begining of one contraction to the end of the same contraction|
|Definition of Recessive, autosomal disorder||A genetic condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of an autosomal gene, one copy from each parent. The gene is on an autosome, a nonsex chromosome. The parents are carriers who have only one copy of the gene and do not exhibit the trait because the gene is recessive to its normal counterpart gene. |
If both parents are carriers, there is a 25% chance of a child inheriting both abnormal genes and, consequently, developing the disease.
|Cyanosis||is a physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes. is is caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood.|
|Before an ultrasound pt need to||increase fluids intake|
|Infants are expected to sleep all night||3 to 4 months|
|RUSSELL TRACTION||The advantage ofRussell traction is that some movement in bed is permissible. The patient can turnslightly toward the side in traction for back care, bedpan placement, or linen change.|
|Tagament (Cimetadine)||is a medication given at bed time for gastric ulcers.|
|Soft spot on baby heads closes||12 to 18 months|
|cephalocaudal trend||is the prenatal growth from conception to 5 months when the head grows more than the body. From head to toe development. baby can move her head before she learns how to sit.|
|proximodistal trend||is the prenatal growth from 5 months to birth when the fetus grows from the inside of the body outwards. When referring to motor development, the proximodistal trend refers to the development of motor skills from the center of the body outwards.|
|to advoid heart burn||pt should not drink caffeinated bervages|
|Guthrie test||A simple screening blood test for phenylketonuria (PKU). Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems|
|Cystic Fibrosis||Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease of your mucus and sweat glands. It affects mostly your lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, sinuses, and sex organs. |
Normally, mucus is watery. It keeps the linings of certain organs moist and prevents them from drying out or getting infected. But in CF, an abnormal gene causes mucus to become thick and sticky.
The mucus builds up in your lungs and blocks the airways. This makes it easy for bacteria to grow and leads to repeated serious lung infections. Over time, these infections can cause serious damage to your lungs.
The thick, sticky mucus can also block tubes, or ducts, in your pancreas. As a result, digestive enzymes that are produced by your pancreas cannot reach your small intestine. These enzymes help break down the food that you eat. Without them, your intestines cannot absorb fats and proteins fully.
As a result:
Nutrients leave your body unused, and you can become malnourished.
Your stools become bulky.
You may not get enough vitamins A, D, E, and K .
You may have intestinal gas, a swollen belly, and pain or discomfort.
|Hiatal hernia||Hiatal hernia is a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen. It is used in breathing.|
|X Vagus||The vagus nerve is the longest of the cranial nerve.|
|XII hypoglossal nerve||is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII), leading to the tongue.|
|I olfactory nerve||or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve cranial nerves. It is instrumental in the sense of smell.|
|Cytomegalovirus||is a herpes viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as HCMV or Human Herpesvirus 5|
|cholecystitis||Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe abdominal pain. The main symptom is abdominal pain that is located on the upper right side or upper middle of the abdomen. The pain may:|
Be sharp, cramping, or dull
Come and go
Spread to the back or below the right shoulder blade
Occur within minutes of a meal
***Pain gets worst after eating fatty foods
|Clubbed fingers is a symptom of||disease, often of the heart or lungs which cause chronically low blood levels of oxygen. Diseases which cause malabsorption, such as cystic fibrosis or celiac disease can also cause clubbing.|
|CRANIAL NERVE X: VAGUS NERVE||All muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and palate,|
|Hemoptysis||is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx|
|Pulmonary embolism (PE)||is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism). Usually this is due to embolism of a thrombus (blood clot) from the deep veins in the legs, a process termed venous thromboembolism. A small proportion is due to the embolization of air, fat or amniotic fluid. The obstruction of the blood flow through the lungs and the resultant pressure on the right ventricle of the heart leads to the symptoms and signs of PE. The risk of PE is increased in various situations, such as cancer and prolonged bed rest.[|
|BURN CHART - RULE OF NINES|| Head/neck - 9% TBSA |
Each arm - 9% TBSA
Anterior thorax - 18% TBSA
Posterior thorax - 18% TBSA
Each leg - 18% TBSA
Perineum - 1% TBSA
|sternum||(the breastbone), located in the center of the chest.|