Cell Organelles & Structure (Biology 521A)

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chloroplasts

organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis

cell wall

a rigid structure that provides shape and support for the plant cell

passive transport

movement of materials without the use of the cell's energy

active transport

the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration, requiring energy

diffusion

The movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

Cell Membrane

Separates cell from its environment. Controls movement of substances into / out of the cell

Centrosome

Organizes the cell's microtubules. Contains centrioles which appear to help in organizing cell division.

Cytoplasm

Clear, thick, jellylike material which supports and protects cell organelles; provides chemical environment for organelles

Cytoskeleton

Strengthen cell & maintains the shape Moves organelles within the cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

A network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

Organelle that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and send proteins to their final destination

Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

Lysosomes

Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules. Digests old cell parts.

Microfilaments

Primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.

Microtubules

Carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transport to structural support.

Mitochondria

They are the main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy

Nucleolus

Produces ribosomes

Nucleus

Controls cell activities.Contains the hereditary material of the cell

Peroxisomes

Responsible for protecting the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide. (As an example, white blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. The oxidative enzymes in peroxisomes break down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen)

Ribosomes

Makes proteins

Vacuole

Fluid filled sac which stores food, water & waste

Vesicle

Sac-like structure used for transport

Isotonic

Water concentration inside the cell is equal to the water concentration outside the cell

Pinocytosis

Involves the intake of a small droplet of extracellular fluid

Phagocytosis

Involves the intake of a large droplet of extracellular fluid which has large particles in it (i.e. bits of organic matter or bacteria)

Receptor assisted endocytosis

Involves the intake of specific molecules(ex. Cholesterol) through the aid of special membrane proteins

Exocytosis

The reverse of endocytosis. Involves the movement of a vesicle from inside the cell to the cell surface in which its contents are excreted into the surrounding environment (ex. Insulin secreted by pancreatic cells)

Eukaryotic

A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).

Rough ER

has ribosomes on it; aids in making proteins

Prokaryote

No true nucleus, single celled

Cell wall

What is the very outer layer shown in this image called?

Plant

This organelle shown above is the site of photosynthesis and is only found in __________ cells.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com. Click to see the original works with their full license.

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