American people who led a reform movement against monopoly, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice. Their battle cry was "Strengthen the State". The real heart of the movement was to use the govenment as an agency of human welfare
Jacob Riis & How the Other Half Lives
A reporter of the New York Sun who wrote 'How the Other Half Lives'. It was an account of the dirt/disease/vice/misery of the New York slums. The book deeply influence Theodore Roosevelt.
Reporters/journalists who 'bared the muck of iniquity in American society'. They wanted to expose political corruption and social injustice. (ex:Jacob Riis & Lewis Hines). They went to great pains and expense to check their material for accuracy. They assailed the malpractices of life insurance companies and tariff liobbies, the money trust, railroad barons and the corrupt amassing of American fortunes. The most effective fire of the muckrakers was directed at social evils (white traffic in women, industrial accidents, abuses of child labor).
Initiatives, referendums and recall
Initiatives: so voters could dirctly propose legislation themselves (bypassing the boss bought state legislatures). Referendum: device that would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the peopler, especially laws that had been railroaded through a complaint legislature by free-spending agents of big business. Recall: would enable the voters to remove faithless elected officials, particularly those who had been bribed by bosses or lobbyists.
National Consumer's League
One of several organizations created by female activists to reform moral and "maternal" issues. It mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws sfe-guarding women and children in the workplace. Founded by Florence Kelley in 1899.
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
Case in 1908 where attorney Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies. It focused more on protecting women and children.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Showed laws regulating factories needed to be enforced. This was a tragic fire in 1911 at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NYC. Locked doors and flagrant violations of the fire code turned the factorey into a death trap. 146 workers were burned to death or lept from 8-9 story windows.Much reform came out of this event
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Militant anti-liquor organization that was founded by Frances E. Willard. It mobilized nearly 1 million women to "make the world homelike". It turned into the largest organization of women in the world. Some states and numerous countries passed"dry" laws which controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol.
Elkins Act of 1903
A railroad legislation passed by Congress that aimed primarily at rebate evil. Heavy fines could be placed both on railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them.
Act that let the Interstate Commerce Commission control rates of railroads and severely restricted free passes to loyal shippers.
Upton Sinclair & the Jungle
He was trying to focus attention on the plight of workers but appaled the piblic with his description of disgusting unsanitary food products instead. His book described in noxious detail the filfth, disease and putrefication in chicago's damp, illventilated slaughterhouses. Many readers and Roosevel were so sickened that tthey found meat unpalatable. The president moved to appoint a special investigating commission.
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
Authorized the president to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves. 46 million acres of trees were resuced from lumbering in 1890s and preserved for posterity.
Newlands Act of 1901
Washinton was authorized to collect money from the sale of public lands in the western states and use the funds for the development of irrigation projects. Settlers repaid the cost of reclamtion from their now-productive soil and the money was put into a revolving fund to finance more such enterprises.
Moderatly reductive bill that tacked on hundreds of upward tariff revisions. It betrayed Taft's campaign promises and outraged the progressive wing of his party.
1910, when Ballinger opened public lands in WY, MT, AK, he was sharply criticized by Pinchot. Taft dismissed Pinchot on the narrow grounds of insubordination which rose a protest from conservationists and Roosevelt's frinds. It further widened the groing rift between the president and the former president.
Flaming speech given by Roosevelt that urged the national government to increase its power to remedy economic and social abuses.