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Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology

What types if activities helped promote the development of modern medical science?

Techniques for making accurate observations & performing careful experiments evolved. Knowledge of the human body expanded. This new knowledge requited a new specialized language.

What factors probably stimulated an early interest in the human body?

The change from hunter-gatherer to an agricultural lifestyle. This lifestyle change brought on other changes such as diet, stresses, and diseases.

How did human health change as lifestyle changed?

As people became more sedentary and diets changed, people became malnourished.

Why is it difficult to separate the topic of anatomy & physiology?

anatomical structures make it possible to learn their function. Each part contributes to the whole. Parts form a well organized unit- the human organism.

What are the difference between anatomy & physiology?

Anatomy ( cutting up) examines the structures of the body parts.
Physiology ( relationship to nature) considers the functions of the body part.

How do body parts at different levels of organization vary in complexity?

The heart consists of muscle, fat & nervous tissue. Cells of complex organism such as human contain structures called organelles that carry out specific activities. Organelles are composed of large molecules, including proteins, carbs, lipids, & nucleic acids. Most human cells contain a complete set of genetic instructions allowing cells to specialize.

List an example of how structures of a body part makes possible its functions.

The functional role arise from the way the body part is constructed. Ex. The arrangement of bones and muscles in the human hand, with its long jointed fingers, making grasping possible.

How are anatomy and physiology both old and new fields?

We are learning more, with more sophisticated technology. New developments, new ideas, ect...

How does the human body illustrate levels of organization?

By organizing the body into subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, organ systems, organism.

What is an organism?

A group that functions closely together comprise an organ system. interacting organ systems make it up.

What are the characteristics of life?

The most fundamental characteristic of life are shared by all organisms. We can respond to our surroundings our bodies grow. We gain energy by ingesting, digesting, absorbing and assimilating the nutrients in food.

Which physiological events constitute metabolism?

The process of respiration, use the energy in these nutrients for such vital functions as growth and repair of tissue. The final process is the excretion of wastes the body does not use. the physical and chemical events that obtain, release a use energy are major part of metabolism.

What would happen to room temperature if the set point where turned up?

The heat would come on until the temperature reached the new set point.

What is the function of pressure in the body?

It plays an important role in breathing and keeps blood flowing through blood vessels.

Why is homeostasis so important to survival?

It maintains a stable internal environment. When we become over heated there is a internal set point that indicates to the hypothalamus to trigger a changed in body temp to reduce the heat in the body. Sweat glands in the skin secretes watery perspiration this allows the body to cool down.

Which requirement of organisms does the external environment provide?

Water: transports substances and regulates temp.
Food: provide nutrients, which provide energy & raw materials for new matter
Oxygen: releases energy from nutrient. Energy in turn, is used to drive metabolic process.
Heat: form of energy in environment production of metabolic reactions & it controls the rate at which these reactions occur.
Pressure: application of force on an object or substance.

Describe 3 homeostatic mechanism?

Receptors: provide info about specific conditions, may be a molecule or a cell.
Control Center: includes a set point, a particular value.
Effectors: causes responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.

Which organs occupy the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and the pelvic cavity?

Thoracic: lungs & a region between the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus.
Abdominal: stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidney, small/large intestines.
Pelvic: terminal end of large intestines, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs.

What are the viscera?

The organs within the thoracic cavity & abdominopelvic cavity.

Name the cavities of the head.

Oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavity, and middle ear cavity.

Describe the membranes associated with the Thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities.

Serous: line the walls of the thoracic and abdom. cavities - secrete a slippery serous fluid that separates the layer lining the wall of the cavity.
Pleural: a thin film of serous fluid separates the parietal and visceral.
Pericardial: located in the broadest portion of the mediastinum.
Peritoneal: lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity & visceral peritoneum covers most of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity.

Distinguish between the parietal & visceral peritoneum.

Parietal: covers the heart surface & is separated from the parietal pericardium by a small volume of serious fluid.
Visceral: covers the heart surface & is separated from the parietal pericardium by a small volume of serous fluid.

Name the major organ systems.

Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive.

List organs of Integumentary system and describe its general function.

Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands.
Protect tissue, regulate body temp, support sensory receptors.

List organs of the Skeletal System and describe its general function.

Bones, ligaments, cartilage.
Provide framework, protect soft tissue, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, store inorganic salts.

List organs of the Muscular System and describe its general function.

Muscles
Cause movement, maintain posture, produce body heat.

List organs of the Nervous System and describe its general function.

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs.
Detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands.

List organs of the Endocrine System and describe its general function.

Glands that secrete hormones
Control metabolic activities of body structures.

List organs of the Cardiovascular System and describe its general function.

Heart, arteries, capillaries, veins.
Move blood through blood vessels and transport substance throughout body.

List organs of the Lymphatic System and describe its general function.

Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen
Return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection

List organs of the Digestive System and describe its general function.

Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreases, small/large intestines.
Receive, break down, and absorb food; eliminate unabsorbed material

List organs of the Respiratory System and describe its general function.

Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood.

List organs of the Urinary System and describe its general function.

Kidney, ureters urinary bladder, urethra.
Remove waste from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine.

List organs of the Reproductive System and describe its genera function.

Male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus, deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral gland, urethra penis. Female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
Produce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract. Produce and maintain egg cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo and function in birth process.

Define againg

Changes in the body with the passage of time. Process of becoming mature or old.

List some aging related changes at the microscopic and whole body levels.

Adult onset disorders grayer/white hairs deeper skin wrinkles proportion of fat to water in the tissue change. Lipofuscin & ceroid pigment accumulate when a cell can no longer prevent the formation of O2 radicals generalized metabolic slowdown diminished tolerance to cold, weight gain and fatigue.

Which is more lateral, the hand or the hip.

the Hand

Describe the anatomical position.

Standing erect, the face is forward and the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms forward.

Describe three types of body sections.

Sagittal: lengthwise cut, divides the body into right and left portions.
Transverse: divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Frontal: divides the body into anterior & posterior portions.

Describe the Nine regions of the abdomen.

Epigastric: upper middle portion
Lt/Rt hypochondriac: Lt/Rt side of the epiogastric region
Lt/Rt lumbar: Lt/Rt side of umbilical
Hypogastric: lower middle portion
Lt/Rt Iliac ( inguinal): Lt/Rt side of the hypogastric region

Explain how the names of the abdominal quadrants describe their location.

RUQ: Right Upper Quadrant
LUQ: Left Upper Quadrant
RLQ: Right Lower Quadrant
LLQ: Left Lowe Quadrant

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