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Creators of the Cell Theory

Schleiden (Botanist), Schwann (Zoologist), Virchow (Physician)

Cell Theory

1- All living things are composed of cells 2- The cell is the basic unit of life 3- All cells come from pre-existing cells

Unicellular Organisms

Consist of only one cell ex) bacteria, amedba, paramecium

Multicellular Organisms

Consists of many cells

Cytology

Study of cells

Robert Hooke

Examined slice of cork, came up with term "cell"

Plasma Membrane

AKA cell membrane, holds cellular contents together, semi-permeable

Semi-Permeable

Only allows certain substances to enter and leave the cell

Molecules Found in the Plasma Membrane

Lipids, Proteins, Cholesterol, Carbohydrates

Phospholipid Bilayer

Cell Membrane

Hydrophilic

Water loving

Hydrophobic

Fear of water

Organelles

Little organs

Nucleus

Control Center

Nuclear Membrane

AKA Nuclear envelope, two membranes forming a boundary around the nucleus with pores, semi-permeable

Nucleolus

Composed of chromatin (DNA) and protein, where ribosomes are produced

Chromosomes

Contains hereditary information

Cytoplasm

all organelles and materials between the cell membrane and the nucleus

Cytosol

Protein rich semi-fluid substance located outside the nucleus and inside the cell membrane (70% Water, 30% Protein {Fats, Carbohydrates})

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

supports other organelles, prepares proteins for secretion, transport materials within a cell

Rough ER

Ribosomes attached to surface

Smooth ER

Ribosomes not attached to surface

Ribosomes

"Protein Factory" produces proteins

Golgi Bodies

temporary storage place for proteins, modifies proteins, collects, packages, distributes molecules, structure consists of small groups of parallel membranes

Mitochondria

"Power House" controls the release of energy

Cristae

Folded inner membrane of a Mitochondria

Lysosomes

"Suicide Sac" found only in animal cells

Centrioles

Functions in cell reproduction, only in animal cells

Vacuoles

"Storage Room" stores materials such as water, slats, proteins, and carbohydrates

Cytoskeleton

Internal support system of the cell composed of microtubules and microfilaments

Microtubules

Cylindrical protein material

Microfilamets

Long, thin fibers that function in movement or support of the cell

Cell Wall

composed of Cellulose around the cell membrane, found in plants, fungi, and some unicellular organisms

Middle Lamella

thin plate composed of pectin (plysaccharide) between adjacent plants cells

Chloroplast

contains chlorophyll (green) used to trap light energy and convert to chemical energy

Chromoplast

contains red, orange, or yellow pigments giving fruits and flowers their color

Xanthophyll

yellow pigment

Carotene

red and orange pigment

Leukoplasts

Colorless plastid where starch molecules are found

Vacuole

plants cells have a single large vacuole that stores water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

Homeostasis

Steady state an organism maintains by self-regulating adjustment

Internal Change Example

Exercise increases the bodies need for oxygen

External Change Example

Temperature, water and food supply, predator escape (stress)

What determines what can enter and leave the cell?

1-Size of molecule 2-Structure of cell membrane 3-Conditions inside/outside the cell 4-Solubility of the substance in water

Diffusion

movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

Permeable

If a particular substance is able to diffuse across a membrane

Influences on Diffusion

Concentration, Temperature, Pressure

Penetrate Rapidly

Gases, Water, Fat Solvents

Penetrate Slowly

Monosaccharides, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, Glycerol

Penetrate Very Slowly

Disaccharide

Little or No Penetration

Polysaccharides, Proteins, Lipids

Hypertonic

Higher concentration of solutes than the solution to which it is being compared

Solute

molecular particulars other than water

Osmosis

Diffusion only referring to water

Hypotonic

Solution that contains a lower concentration of solutes than the solution to which it is being compared

Isotonic

solute concentration the same inside and outside the cell

Active Transport

Requires energy, from low to high concentration

Facilitated Diffusion

Passive transport, increases rate of diffusion using carrier proteins

Transport Vesicles

Process of molecules entering the cell through indented areas of plasma membrane

Endocytosis

transport of molecules into the cell by transport vesicles (energy)

Phagocytosis

engulfing particles into the cell by use of cytoplasmic extensions

Exocytosis

transport molecules out of the cell by vesicles

Pinocytosis

Tiny pockets form along the cell membrane that fill with liquid to form vesicles

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