Essential Elements For Effectiveness Chapter - 2

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Essential Elements For Effectiveness Chapter - 2 Fifth Edition

Behaviorism

A deterministic theory of personality that states that humans are a product of our conditioning, learning histories, and our current reinforcement schedules.

Catastrophizing

Giving oneself the message that a situation is too awful or overwhelming to bear or that the worst is about to happen.

Cognitive Restructuring

A powerful strategy for refuting irrational beliefs and changing your self-talk

Cognitive-Behaviorism

The study of humans should not focus solely on overt behavior but must include our covert behavior, that is our thoughts and self talk that precede our behavior.

Concordance Rate

The probability that two individuals display the same trait or characteristic.

Correlation

A non-causal relationship between any two variables; the greater the degree of relationship the higher the correlation.

Determinism

A belief inn cause and effect relationships and by implication the absence of free will in human affairs.

Delusional Thinking

Believing in ideas that are reality based like those involving fears of persecution

Defensive Pessimism

A strategy that anticipates a negative outcome and them takes steps to avoid that outcome.

Dispositional Pessimism

A strategy of negative thinking in general, base on thoughts about the past, leading to negative expectations about the future.

External Locus of Control

An individual's belief that they are a victim, buffeted and abused by external events over which they have no control.

Explanatory Style

A perspective one has in dealing with the world such as optimism or pessimism.

Free will

The ability of humans to ignore so-called determining factors and freely choose how and when to act.

Global Citizen

An individual who places emphasis on individual choice, in a collective setting, for the greater good.

Hallucinations

Seeing, hearing, or feeling things that aren't really there.

Humanistm

Our personalities and our behavior are not so much a product of our conditioning and conditions but our choices in response to them; developed by Maslow and Rogers.

Internal Locus Of Control

An individual's belief that they are responsible for the ultimate outcomes in their life; proactivity

Locus of Control

The nature of how an individual perceives their ability to control their response to life events; on a continuum from external to internal.

Optimism

The habit of perceiving and interpreting potential problems in way that gives life meaning and a sense of control; looking for reasons to be happy and satisfied with life.

Psychoanalytic Theory

Sigmund Freud's deterministic theory of personality formation focused on the experiences of the first five to six year of growth

Pessimism

The opposite of Optimism

Proactivity

The ability to initiate and choose your responses to life events

Psychotic Episode

Loss of contact with conventional reality marked by hallucinations and delusional thinking

Spurious Correlation

The human tendency to perceive a correlation or relationship between things that really does not exit.

Schizophrenia

A severe disorder of thought and emotions where individuals have difficulty differentiating traditional reality from their own internal fantasies and fears.

Self Efficacy

A perception of perceived competence

Self-Talk

The running commentary that goes on in your head during the course of the day.

Existentialism

a philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions

Learned Helpness

Belief that nothing you can do will alter your circumstances or an outcome, therefore you totally give up

Nonreflexive reality

Not influenced by the thoughts, expectations, desires, or wishes of humans

Reflexive reality

Influenced by and sometimes even directly determined by our beliefs, perceptions and expectaions

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