UA Modern Biology Quiz 17

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Union Academy Biology Chapter 17

Taxonomy

The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms

Taxon

Any particular group within a taxonomic system

Carolus Linnaeus

Swedish botanist who proposed the modern system of biological nomenclature (1707-1778)

Domain

Most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom

Phylum

Taxonomic classification of closely related classes

Kingdom

Large taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla

Class

Taxonomic group containing closely related orders

Order

Taxonomic group containing closely related families

Family

Taxonomic group containing closely related genera

Genus

Taxonomic group containing closely related species

Species

Taxonomic group whose members can breed and produce fertile offspring

Latin

Language used to assign scientific names to all living organisms

binomial nomenclature

Two-word system for naming organisms

Aristotle

Greek philosopher, developed first biological classification system

plants and animals

Aristotle's classification sytem consisted of these two groups

phylogenetics

The analysis of the evolutionary or ancestral relationships among taxa

phylogenetic diagram

A branching diagram that models evolutionary relationships between different organisms

dichotomous key

A key for the identification of organisms based on morphological traits

cladogram

Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among organisms based on shared, derived characters

Archaea

Domain of prokaryotic organisms that are genetically distinct from bacteria

Bacteria

Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans

Eukarya

In a modern taxonomic system, a domain made up of all eukaryotes; this domain aligns with the traditional kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

Eubacteria

A kingdom that contains all prokaryotes except archaebacteria

autotroph

An organism that makes its own food

heterotroph

Organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer

prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

Animalia

Kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls

Plantae

Kingdom of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose

Fungi

Kingdom composed of eukaryotic heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter

Protista

Kingdom of mostly single-celled eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi

cell type

The main difference between all members of domain Eukarya and all members of domain Archaea and Bacteria

division

Instead of phylum, preferred term to describe classification level below kindgom in plants

biodiversity

Variety of living organisms on Earth

homologous

Structures having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions

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