ServSafe Manager 6th edition Ch.2

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Covers "Forms of Contamination"

Physical contaminants

Fish bones, bandages, fingernails, jewelry, metal shavings, glass

Prevent physical contaminants by

Purchasing from approved, reputable suppliers

Symptoms of physical contaminants

Bleeding, pain, dental damage, and choking

Chemical contaminants

Cleaners, sanitizers, polishes ANYTHING CHEMICAL

Prevent Chemical contaminants by

Storing chemicals away from food and correctly labeling cleaning bottles.

Food defense program

A.L.E.R.T

What does ALERT stand for

Assure: Make sure products are from safe sources
Look: Monitor the security of products in the facility
Employees: Know who is in your facility
Reports: Keep information related to food defense accessible
Threat: What you will do and who you will contact if there's a threat at your operation

A food allergen is a

protein in a food or ingredient that some people are sensitive to

Allergy symptoms

Nausea, wheezing,shortness of breath, hives or itchy rashes, swelling, vomiting and/or diarrhea, abdominal pain

8 Most common food allergens

Milk(dairy products)
Eggs
Fish
Shellfish-lobster, shrimp, and crab
Wheat
Soy
Peanuts
Tree nuts: Almonds, walnuts, and pecans

Microorganisms

Small, living organisms that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope.

Pathogens

Illness-causing microorganisms

Types of pathogens

Viruses
Bacteria
Parasites
Fungi

Toxins

Poisons produced by pathogens, plants, or animals.

FAT TOM
(Conditions needed for pathogens to grow)

Food
Acidity
Temperature

Time
Oxygen
Moisture

Acidity

The level of acid in a food. An acidic substance has a pH between 0.0 and 6.9.

pH

A measurement of how acidic or alkaline a food is. A substance that has a pH of 7 is neutral.

Alkaline (or Alkalinity)

The level of alkali in food. An alkaline substance has a pH 7.1 or above.

Foods with pH levels that are ideal for pathogen(bacterial) growth (pH of 4.6 - 7.5)

Bread (pH of 5.0 - 6.0)
Raw chicken (pH of 5.5 - 6.0)
Cantaloupe (pH of 6.1 - 6.5)
Milk (pH of 6.4 - 6.8)

TDZ
(Temperature Danger Zone)

Range of temperature ideal for pathogen growth; between 41 degrees Fahrenheit and 135 degrees Fahrenheit.

Water activity

Amount of moisture available in food for microorganisms to grow. (Measured in a scale from 0.0 to 1.0; water = 1.0)

Water activity of TCS foods
(Ideal for growth of bacteria)

0.85 or higher

TCS

Time and Temperature Control for Safety - minimizing the amount of time high-risk foods spend in the Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ).

Examples of TCS Foods

Milk and dairy products, Eggs
Meat, Poultry, Fish
Shellfish and crustaceans
Baked potatoes
Heat-treated plant food, such as cooked rice, beans, and vegetables
Tofu or other soy protein
Synthetic ingredients (textured soy protein in meat alternatives)
Sprouts and sprout seeds
Sliced melons, cut tomatoes
Leafy greens that have been cut, shredded, sliced, chopped, or torn.

Ready-to-eat food

Food that can be eaten without further preparation, washing or cooking.

Examples of Ready-to-eat food

Washed fruit and vegetables (whole and cut)
Deli meat
Bakery items
Sugar, spices, and seasonings
Cooked food

Common characteristics of Viruses

-Can survive refrigeration and freezer temperatures.
-Cannot grow in food, but once eaten can grow inside a person's intestines.
-Can contaminate both food and water.
-Can be transmitted from person to person, from people to food, and from people to food-contact surfaces.

Common characteristics of Bacteria

-Controlled by keeping food out of the Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ).
-Grow rapidly, if FAT TOM conditions are right.
-Some can change into spores to protect themselves.
-Some produce toxins in food as they grow and die.

Spore

A form that some bacteria can take to protect themselves when nutrients are not available.

Characteristics of Spores

- Commonly found in dirt so can contaminate food grown there.
- Resists heat and so can survive cooking temps.
- Can revert back to a form capable of growth when food is not held at the correct temperature or is cooled or reheated improperly.

Parasite

Organism that needs to live in a host organism to survive.

Common characteristics of Parasites

-Cannot grow in food.
-Live in the muscles, or meat, of animals (cows, chickens, pigs, fish).
-Found in the feces of animals and people.
-Contaminate both food and water (esp. irrigation water).

Fungi

Single- or multicelled plant organisms that most often spoil food.

Examples of Fungi

Mold
Yeast
Mushrooms

Common characteristics of Mold

-Spoil food and sometimes cause illness.
-Some produce toxins, such as aflatoxins.
-Grow well in acidic food with low water activity (jams, jellies, and cured salty meats).
-Cooler or freezer temperatures may slow growth, but do not kill them.

Steps to prevent mold-related illnesses

-Throw out all moldy food, unless the mold is a natural part of the product.
-Cut away moldy areas in hard cheese, salami, firm fruits, and vegetables.

Common characteristics of Yeast

-Spoil food quickly.
-Grow well in acidic food with low water activity (jams, jellies, jams, syrup, honey, and fruit or fruit juice).

"The Big Five"
(Highly infectious kinds of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and molds)

- Shigella spp.
- Salmonella Typhi
- Enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing E. coli
- Hepatitis A
- Norovirus

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