Ophthalmology Terminology

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Terms from the lecture entitled Ophthalmology(1)

The eye consists of ____ concentric layers

Three

The layers are referred to as ______

Tunics

The ________ tunic is a tough, fibrous layer consisting of the sclera and the cornea.

External

The ________tunic is the vascular layer consisting of the choroid, the ciliary body, and the iris.

Middle

The _________ tunic is the nerve tissue layer making up the retina

Inner

The ______is the opaque, white portion of the globe.

Sclera

The _________junction is the area where the transparent collagen bundles of the cornea transition to the white opaque fibers of the sclera.

corneal-scleral

The ________drains fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye and communicates with the venous system.

Canal of Schlemm

When the eye is at rest or focused on distant objects, the lens is _________.

stretched

To focus on near objects, the ciliary muscles contract and the lens becomes ______ thus keeping the object in focus.

thicker

________ results from increased intraocular pressure due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.

Glaucoma

The _______ is the outer edge of the iris, where the cornea stops.

limbus

The _______ is the serrated junction between the retina and the ciliary body.

ora serrata

The opening between the eyelids is called the _________.

palpebral fissure

The ____________ covers the inner aspect of the lid.

palpebral conjunctiva

The ___________ covers the sclera over the globe.

bulbar conjunctiva

The ______ or ________ is the site of central vision and color perception.

macula or fovea

___________ occurs when the patient shifts focus from a distant object to a near object and the pupils constrict and the curvature of the lens is changed to adjust.

Accommodation

_________ refers to the slight coming together of the eyes when the focus is shifted from far to near.

Convergence

_________ is excessive tearing of the eye.

Epiphora

__________ is inflammation of the cornea.

Keratitis

_________ is a thin, gray-white arc or circle, not quite at the edge of the cornea, caused by lipid deposits.

Arcus senilis

__________ (crossed-eyes) is a manifest lack of parallelism of the visual axis of the eyes, resulting in the absence of binocular fixation.

Strabismus

__________ ("lazy eye") is caused by a disruption of the normal development of vision, that results in reduced visual acuity that is not correctable by refractive means.

Amblyopia

In ______ , the eye that was covered turns in to fixate.

exotropia

In ______ , the eye that was covered turns out to fixate.

esotropia

_________ occurs when the eye returns to midline from the lateral side when uncovered.

Exotropia

_______ occurs when the eye returns to midline from the medial side when uncovered.

Esotropia

_____ measures intraocular pressure.

Tonometry

Normal intraocular pressure (IOP) is __ to __ mm Hg, and is measured by a device called a tonometer.

10 to 24

A _______ is an instrument consisting of a microscope combined with a rectangular light source that can be narrowed into a slit.

slitlamp

_________ is a flat, slightly raised, irregularly shaped, yellow tinted lesion on the periorbital tissues that represents depositions of lipids.

Xanthelasma

__________ is swelling of the bulbar conjunctiva, forming a swelling around the cornea.

Chemosis

O.D. = "oculus dexter" = _____ eye

right

O.S. = "oculus sinister" = ______ eye

left

O.U. = "oculus uterque" = _____ eyes

both

___________ discharge usually indicates bacterial infection of the conjunctiva, cornea, or lacrimal sac.

Purulent

_____________ discharge usually indicates viral conjunctivitis or keratitis.

Watery

Tearing, ropy discharge and itching usually is a result of _______ ___________.

allergic conjunctivitis

An individual is visually impaired if the best corrected distant visual acuity in the better eye is _____/_____ or less, or if the visual fields are significantly restricted.

20/80

______ _______ is defined as visual acuity for distant vision of 20/200 or less in the better eye with best correction.

Legal blindness

________ (double vision) typically results from extraocular muscle imbalance.

Diplopia

________ (spots before the eyes) are often caused by benign vitreous opacities.

Floaters

Visual acuity should be tested for each eye in turn, using a ________ chart (alphabet or "E" chart).

Snellen

Visual acuity is expressed as two numbers: the first indicates the distance of the patient from the ____, and the second, the distance at which a normal eye can read the line of letters.

chart

Vision of 20/200 means that at ___ feet the patient can read print that a person with normal vision could read at _____ feet.

20, 200

Pupil size should be compared in both ____ and ____.

light, dark

_______ _______ pupils are small, irregular pupils that accommodate but do not react to light, seen in central nervous system syphilis.

Argyll Robertson

A thorough funduscopic exam should be performed using an ___________.

ophthalmoscope

The ophthalmoscope diopters ___ to ___should be used to visualize the anterior chamber.

+4 to +12

Cataracts and other lens abnormalities can be easily examined using the ___ to ___ diopter setting.

+10 to +12

Diopters set to ___ should be used to visualize the cornea.

+20

Hyperopia aka --

(farsightedness)

myopia aka ---

(nearsightedness)

The long globe associated with myopia is best examined using the _______ red numbers on the ophthalmoscope (turning counter-clockwise from zero).

negative

The short globe associated with hyperopia is best examined using the ______ black or green numbers on the ophthalmoscope (turning clockwise from zero).

positive

______ glands secrete a lubricant called sebum

Meibomian or Tarsal glands

The glands of ____ are modified sebaceous glands whose secretions flow to the edge of the eyelid into the hair follicles of the eye lashes.

Zeis

A _________ is an acute development of a small abscess within a gland of the upper or lower eyelid of one eye (most commonly the upper eyelid).

hordeolum

An _______ hordeolum, also known as a sty, is smaller and is caused by inflammation and infection of the glands of Moll or Zeis, with abscess formation in those glands.

external

An ________ hordeolum is a meibomian gland abscess that is situated deep from the palpebral margin, and points onto the conjunctival surface of the lid.

internal

________ is a common granulomatous inflammation of a meibomian gland that may follow an internal hordeolum.

Chalazion

________ is a common chronic bilateral inflammatory condition of the lid margins.

Blepharitis

_________ is defined as an inward turning (inversion) of the eyelid and lashes (usually the lower).

Entropion

__________ is defined as an outward turning (eversion) of the lower lid.

Ectropion

__________ is infection and inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to obstruction of the nasolacrimal system.

Dacryocystitis

In ______ dacryocystitis, the usual infectious organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, and Beta-hemolytic streptococci.

acute

In ______ dacryocystitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, anaerobic streptococci, and, or Candida albicans are the usual infectious organisms.

chronic

_______ nasolacrimal duct obstruction is common in the newborn after the first month of life, and occurs when the duct does not open.

Congenital

__________ is an uncommon condition involving acute inflammation of the lacrimal gland.

Dacryoadenitis

_______ dacryoadenitis is most often seen in children as a complication of mumps, measles, or influenza.

Acute

_______ dacryoadenitis may be seen with lymphoma, leukemia, tuberculosis, and sarcoidosis.

Chronic

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