The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologist today agree with but not with.
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition.
The science of behavior and mental processes
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors. Todays science sees traits and behavior arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Levels of analysis
The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to sociocultural, for analyzing and given phenomenon.
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social cultural levels of analysis.
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and achieving greater well-being.
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders.
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatment as well as psychological therapy.
A study method incorporating 5 steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review
A psychologist conducting basic research to expand psychology's knowledge base would be most likely to....
Observe 3-and 6-year olds solving puzzles and analyze difference in their abilities.
A psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescent at a local mental health agency is most likely to be a(n)....
A psychologist using the behavioral perspective would be most likely to study...
The effect of school uniforms on classroom behaviors.
The perspective in psychology that focuses on how behavior & thought differ form situation to situation and form culture to culture is ____________ perspective.
In the history of psychology, a major topic has been the relative influence of nature and nurture. Nature is to nurture as...
biology is to experience
In the early twentieth century, __________ redefined psychology as "the science of observable behavior."
John B Watson
A prominent psychology text was published in 1890. Its author was....
In 1879, in psychology's first experiment,_________________ and his students measured the time lag between hearing a ball hit a platform & pressing a key.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Founder of psychology, emphasizes the use of experimental method to study consciousness
William James (1842-1910)
Functionalism-stressed the importance of how behavior interacts with the environment
Sigmund Freud (1850-1939)
Believed behavior was motivated by unconscious conflicts ( usually aggressive or sexual0
John Watson (1878-1958)
Emphasized the study of observable behavior
psychodynamic, behaviorist, humanistic, biological, cognitive, socio-culteral, and evolutionary
Explains behavior is the product of unconscious drives and conflicts
Explains behavior as acquired and modified by environmental cause
Emphasize free will and the motivation of people to grow psychologically
Studies the physiological mechanism in the brain and nervous system
Studies how knowledge is acquired, organized, remember, and used
Emphasizes the influence of culture on behavior
Applies principles of evolution to explain psychological process.
Levels of Analysis
Biological, Psychological, Social, Spiritual
How does the person's body affect their behavior
How does the persons individuality affect their behavior
How does the person's social situation affect their behavior
How does God's purpose affect their behavior
the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that we would have foreseen it
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events.
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participant and circumstances
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group
All the cases n a group being studied from which samples may be drawn
a sample that fairly represent a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
The extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chances thus minimizing preexisting difference between those assigned to the different groups.
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is to one version of the independent variable
in an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment, contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
experimental results caused y expectations alone, any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
the experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied
The outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
To detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another. Does not specify cause and effect
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
As scientist, psychologist view theories with curiosity, skepticism, and humility. This means that they
Are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified by research
A newspaper article describes how a "cure for cancer has been found" A critical thinker probably will...
question the article, evaluate the evidence, and assess the conclusions.
You wish to take an accurate poll in a certain country by questioning people who truly represent the country's adult population. Therefore, you need to ensure that you question....
a random sample of the population,
A study finds that the more childbirth training classes women attend the less pain medication they require during childbirth. This finding can be stated as a
Knowing that two events are correlated provides
a basis for prediction
Some people wrongly perceive that their dreams predict future events. This is an example of
an illusionary correlation
A double-blind procedure is often used to prevent researchers biases from influencing the outcome of an experiment, In this procedure
Neither the participants nor the researchers know who is in the experimental group or control group
A researcher want to determine whether noise level affects the blood pressure of elderly people. In one group she varies the level of noise in the environment and records participants blood pressure. In this experiment , the level of noise is the
is the independent variable in this experiment
The laboratory environment is designed to
re-create the events of everyday life
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
the neuron's bushy branching extension that receive messages and conduct impulses towards the cell body
the neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles or glands
a neural impulse, a brief electrical change that down an axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron, the tiny gap at this junction is the synaptic gap
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap between neurons, it cross the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous System (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to rest of the body
bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles glands and sense organs
carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
carry outgoing information from the brain an spinal cord to the muscles and glands
within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.
Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body conserving its energy
a simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus
the body's slow chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissue
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
the endocrine systems most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
The tiny space between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron is called the
the neurons response to stimulation is an all or none response meaning that the intensity of the stimulus determines
whether or not an impulse is generated
When an action potential reaches the axon terminal of a neuron, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called
is called a neurotransmitter
Endorphins are released in the brain in response to
pain or vigorous exercise
The autonomic nervous system controls internal functions, such as heart rate and glandular activity. The world autonomic means
The sympathetic nervous system arouses us for action and the parasympathetic nervous system calms us down. together the two systems make up the
they make up the autonomic nervous system
the oldest part and central core of the brain beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival function
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
the brains sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; to directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include some nonverbal learning, processing sensory input, and coordinating movement output and balance
neural system (including hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemisphere; associated with emotions and drives.
two Lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system, linked to emotions
a neural structure lying below the thalamus it directs several maintenance activities helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward.
the intricate fabric of intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres the body's ultimate control and information processing center
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgement
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear receives sensory input for touch and judgement
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers ad processes body touch and movement sensation
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions rather they are involved in higher mental functions
impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area
controls language expression and area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere that directs the muscles movements involved in speech
controls language reception a brain area usually in the left temporal lobe that is involved in language comprehension and expression
the brains ability to change especially during childhood by recognizing after damage or by building new spathe based on experience
the formation of new neurons
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connection them
Left Hemisphere controls
language, positive emotion, analytical, controls/senses, right side, right side visual field
Right Hemisphere controls
nonverbal abilities (art), negative emotions synthetic controls/senses of the left side, left side of the body, left visual fields
The thalamus receives information from the sensory neurons and routes it to the higher brain regions that control senses. The thalamus functions like a
The lower brain structure that governs arousal is the
The limbic system a doughnut shaped structure at the border of the brains older parts and the cerebral hemispheres is associated with basic motives emoticons and memory functions. Two parts of the limbic system are the amygdala and the...
the cerebral hemisphere
If a neurosurgeon stimulates your right motor cortex, you would most likely...
move your left leg
Which of the following body regions has the greatest representation in the sensory cortex
The "uncommitted"area that makes up about three fourths of the cerebral cortex are called
are called the association areas
Plasticity- the brains ability to reorganize itself after damage is especially evident in the brain of ....
an experimenter flashes the word HERON across the visual field of a man whose corpus callosum has been severed. HER is transmitted to his right hemisphere and ON to his left. When asked to indicate what he say the man.....
will say he saw ON but point to HER
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracts
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
in attentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
failing to notice changes in the environment
the biological clock, regular bodily rhythms
rapid eye movement sleep a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
periodic natural loss of consciousness as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia or hibernation
false sensory experiences
the large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. the suffer may lapse directly into REM often at inopportune times
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified, occur during stage 4 sleep within two or three hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered
a sequence of images emotions and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind.
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
according to Freud,, the underlying meaning of a dream
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Levels of Consciousness
controlled process, automatic process, subconscious process, and no awareness
How many stages of sleep
there are 4
5 min, starting to fall asleep, alpha waves
20 mins, falling deeper into sleep, alpha waves
Stage 3 & 4
delta waves, deepening of brain waves moving back and forth rolling across the brain
we were made to do this, synapse and purge repair and restore brain
3 views as to why we dream
psychoanalytic view, biological view and cognitive view
We register and react to stimuli outside of our awareness by means of _______processing. When we devote full conscious attention to stimuli, we use _______processing
During stage 1 light sleep a person is most likely to experience
most likely to experience hallucinations
During sleep we pass through a cycle of five stages, each with characteristic brain waves, as the night progresses the REM stage
becomes briefer and briefer
In interpreting dreams, Freud was most interested in their....
latent content or hidden meaning
the activation syntheses theory suggest that dreams
are the brains attempt to make sense of random neural activity
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions feelings thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
made during a hypnosis session to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
People who are hypnotizable and will carry out a hypnotic suggestion typically
have rich fantasy lives
most experts agree that hypnosis can be effectively used to
Hilgard believed that hypnosis involves dissociation or
a state of divided consciousness
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drugs effects
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
a physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
a psychological need to use a drug
drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body function
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
opium and its derivatives, they depress neural activity temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
drugs that stimulate neural activity cause in speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system with speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes over time appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen, produces euphoria and social intimacy but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition
psychedlic drugs that sitort perceptions an evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
a powerful hallucinogenic drug
near death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after close brush with death often similar to drug induced hallucinations
the major active ingredient in marijuana triggers a variety of effects including mild hallucinations
The depressants include
alcohol, barbiturates and opiates
Social cultural explanations for drug use often focus on the effect of peer influence. an important psychological contributor to drug use is
the feeling that life is meaningless and directionless
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
every non genetic influences
threadlike structure made of DNA molecules that contain genes
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes, a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical organism
develop from separate fertilized eggs. they are genetically no closer than brother and sister but they share a fetal environment
a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another factor
the principle that among the range of inherited traits variations those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male or female
observable characteristics of a person
genetic makeup of a person, dominant and recessive
evolutionary psychology is
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principle of natural selection
adoption studies seek to understand genetic influences on personality, they do this mainly by
evaluating whether adopted children's personalities more closely resemble those of their adoptive parents or their biological parents
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
the sex chromosome found in both men and women.
sex chromosome only found in men
a set of expectations about a social position define how those in position ought to behave
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females
our sense of being male or female
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
normal levels of stimulation are important during infancy and early childhood because during these years....
experience activities and preserves neural connections that might otherwise die from disuse
individualist cultures tend to value _____ collectivist cultures tend to value_____
human developmental processes tend to _____from one group to another because we are members of ____
be the same; the same species
community sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, market pricing ,individualism
cooperation and self sacrifice for the family or tribe
obedience and UN-questioning respect for authority
reciprocity turn taking and sharing among people of equal status
exchanging $ for goods and making cost benefit analysis
identify is in terms of personal attribute and accomplishments
group identities and group goals are emphasized