Psychology Module 1-9

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Exploring Psychology First Test

Behaviorism

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologist today agree with but not with.

Humanistic Psychology

Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.

Cognitive Neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition.

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes

Nature-Nurture issue

The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors. Todays science sees traits and behavior arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.

Levels of analysis

The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to sociocultural, for analyzing and given phenomenon.

Biopsychosocial Approach

An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social cultural levels of analysis.

Basic research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

Applied Research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

Counseling Psychology

A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and achieving greater well-being.

Clinical Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders.

Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatment as well as psychological therapy.

SQ3R

A study method incorporating 5 steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review

A psychologist conducting basic research to expand psychology's knowledge base would be most likely to....

Observe 3-and 6-year olds solving puzzles and analyze difference in their abilities.

A psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescent at a local mental health agency is most likely to be a(n)....

Clinical psychologist

A psychologist using the behavioral perspective would be most likely to study...

The effect of school uniforms on classroom behaviors.

The perspective in psychology that focuses on how behavior & thought differ form situation to situation and form culture to culture is ____________ perspective.

Social-cultural

In the history of psychology, a major topic has been the relative influence of nature and nurture. Nature is to nurture as...

biology is to experience

In the early twentieth century, __________ redefined psychology as "the science of observable behavior."

John B Watson

A prominent psychology text was published in 1890. Its author was....

William James

In 1879, in psychology's first experiment,_________________ and his students measured the time lag between hearing a ball hit a platform & pressing a key.

Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

Founder of psychology, emphasizes the use of experimental method to study consciousness

William James (1842-1910)

Functionalism-stressed the importance of how behavior interacts with the environment

Sigmund Freud (1850-1939)

Believed behavior was motivated by unconscious conflicts ( usually aggressive or sexual0

John Watson (1878-1958)

Emphasized the study of observable behavior

Major Perspective

psychodynamic, behaviorist, humanistic, biological, cognitive, socio-culteral, and evolutionary

Psychodynamic

Explains behavior is the product of unconscious drives and conflicts

Behaviorist

Explains behavior as acquired and modified by environmental cause

Humanistic

Emphasize free will and the motivation of people to grow psychologically

Biological

Studies the physiological mechanism in the brain and nervous system

Cognitive

Studies how knowledge is acquired, organized, remember, and used

Socio-Cultural

Emphasizes the influence of culture on behavior

Evolutionary

Applies principles of evolution to explain psychological process.

Levels of Analysis

Biological, Psychological, Social, Spiritual

Biological

How does the person's body affect their behavior

Psychological

How does the persons individuality affect their behavior

Social

How does the person's social situation affect their behavior

Spiritual

How does God's purpose affect their behavior

Hindsight bias

the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that we would have foreseen it

Critical Thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events.

Hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Operational Definition

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables

Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participant and circumstances

Case Study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

Survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group

Population

All the cases n a group being studied from which samples may be drawn

Random sample

a sample that fairly represent a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

Naturalistic Observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

Correlation

The extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

Illusory Correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists.

Experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.

Random Assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chances thus minimizing preexisting difference between those assigned to the different groups.

Experimental Group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is to one version of the independent variable

Control group

in an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment, contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

Double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

Placebo Effect

experimental results caused y expectations alone, any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

Independent Variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied

Dependent Variable

The outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

Correlational

To detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another. Does not specify cause and effect

Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

As scientist, psychologist view theories with curiosity, skepticism, and humility. This means that they

Are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified by research

A newspaper article describes how a "cure for cancer has been found" A critical thinker probably will...

question the article, evaluate the evidence, and assess the conclusions.

You wish to take an accurate poll in a certain country by questioning people who truly represent the country's adult population. Therefore, you need to ensure that you question....

a random sample of the population,

A study finds that the more childbirth training classes women attend the less pain medication they require during childbirth. This finding can be stated as a

Negative correlation

Knowing that two events are correlated provides

a basis for prediction

Some people wrongly perceive that their dreams predict future events. This is an example of

an illusionary correlation

A double-blind procedure is often used to prevent researchers biases from influencing the outcome of an experiment, In this procedure

Neither the participants nor the researchers know who is in the experimental group or control group

A researcher want to determine whether noise level affects the blood pressure of elderly people. In one group she varies the level of noise in the environment and records participants blood pressure. In this experiment , the level of noise is the

is the independent variable in this experiment

The laboratory environment is designed to

re-create the events of everyday life

Neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

dendrite

the neuron's bushy branching extension that receive messages and conduct impulses towards the cell body

axon

the neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles or glands

action potential

a neural impulse, a brief electrical change that down an axon

Threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron, the tiny gap at this junction is the synaptic gap

neurotransmitter

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap between neurons, it cross the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.

endorphins

natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

nervous system

the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system

Central Nervous System (CNS)

the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous System (PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to rest of the body

Nerves

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles glands and sense organs

Sensory Neurons

carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

Motor Neurons

carry outgoing information from the brain an spinal cord to the muscles and glands

Interneurons

within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

Somatic Nervous System

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body skeletal muscles

Autonomic Nervous System

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.

Sympathetic Nervous System

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

Parasympathetic Nervous System

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body conserving its energy

Reflex

a simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus

Endocrine System

the body's slow chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Hormone

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissue

Adrenal Gland

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress

Pituitary Gland

the endocrine systems most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

The tiny space between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron is called the

synaptic gap

the neurons response to stimulation is an all or none response meaning that the intensity of the stimulus determines

whether or not an impulse is generated

When an action potential reaches the axon terminal of a neuron, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called

is called a neurotransmitter

Endorphins are released in the brain in response to

pain or vigorous exercise

The autonomic nervous system controls internal functions, such as heart rate and glandular activity. The world autonomic means

self regulating

The sympathetic nervous system arouses us for action and the parasympathetic nervous system calms us down. together the two systems make up the

they make up the autonomic nervous system

Brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival function

Medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

Thalamus

the brains sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; to directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Reticular Formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

Cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include some nonverbal learning, processing sensory input, and coordinating movement output and balance

Limbic System

neural system (including hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemisphere; associated with emotions and drives.

Amygdala

two Lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system, linked to emotions

hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus it directs several maintenance activities helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward.

Cerebral Cortex

the intricate fabric of intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres the body's ultimate control and information processing center

Frontal Lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgement

Parietal Lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear receives sensory input for touch and judgement

Occipital Lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

Temporal Lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

Motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

sensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers ad processes body touch and movement sensation

association area

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions rather they are involved in higher mental functions

Aphasia

impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area

Broca's Area

controls language expression and area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere that directs the muscles movements involved in speech

Wernicke's Area

controls language reception a brain area usually in the left temporal lobe that is involved in language comprehension and expression

Plasticity

the brains ability to change especially during childhood by recognizing after damage or by building new spathe based on experience

Neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

Corpus Callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Split brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connection them

Left Hemisphere controls

language, positive emotion, analytical, controls/senses, right side, right side visual field

Right Hemisphere controls

nonverbal abilities (art), negative emotions synthetic controls/senses of the left side, left side of the body, left visual fields

The thalamus receives information from the sensory neurons and routes it to the higher brain regions that control senses. The thalamus functions like a

switchboard

The lower brain structure that governs arousal is the

reticular formation

The limbic system a doughnut shaped structure at the border of the brains older parts and the cerebral hemispheres is associated with basic motives emoticons and memory functions. Two parts of the limbic system are the amygdala and the...

the cerebral hemisphere

If a neurosurgeon stimulates your right motor cortex, you would most likely...

move your left leg

Which of the following body regions has the greatest representation in the sensory cortex

the thumb

The "uncommitted"area that makes up about three fourths of the cerebral cortex are called

are called the association areas

Plasticity- the brains ability to reorganize itself after damage is especially evident in the brain of ....

young children

an experimenter flashes the word HERON across the visual field of a man whose corpus callosum has been severed. HER is transmitted to his right hemisphere and ON to his left. When asked to indicate what he say the man.....

will say he saw ON but point to HER

Dual Processing

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracts

Selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

in attentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

Change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

Circadian Rhythm

the biological clock, regular bodily rhythms

REM sleep

rapid eye movement sleep a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur

Alpha Waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

Sleep

periodic natural loss of consciousness as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia or hibernation

hallucinations

false sensory experiences

delta waves

the large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

Insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. the suffer may lapse directly into REM often at inopportune times

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified, occur during stage 4 sleep within two or three hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered

dream

a sequence of images emotions and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind.

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

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