St. Augustine was settled by...?
commander of Spanish force in 1565
Pedro Menendez de Aviles
founding of St. Augustine illustrated elements of Europe's colinization (3)
competition for land was violent, were motivated by a desire for power wealth and religion, presence in americas was long lasting.
who was first to take major steps in exploration and colinization of americas?
(spanish) searched carribean for fountain of youth, explored and named florida
juan ponce de leon
(spanish) sought wealth, explored the isthmus of panama
vasco nunez de balboa
first to see pacific ocean from americas?
first to cross pacific from americas?
portugese, explored for spanish. traveled from europe to guam where he was killed
who was the first to circumnavigate the globe?
effort to expel islamic followers from the iberian peninsula
the reconquista established three reasons for conquest. they were....?
spread christian religion, loot muslim cities for wealth, win fame for exploits
spanish used enslaved labor of...?
native americans and africans
how did spanish deal with native americans?
forced them to be a part of the colonial economy
native americans were required to farm, ranch, or mine for the profit of an individual spaniard and in return the spaniard ensured the worker's well-being
enslaved african who worked with cabeza de vaca?
shipwrecked in texas where he heard storieds of the seven cities of gold
alvar nunez cabeza de vaca
seached southwest US for gold (Texas to Kansas)
francisco vasquez de coronado
landed in florida to look for golden cities. first to cross mississippi river.
hernando de soto
why did the spanish government want to settle other parts of the americas?
mining, safeguarding trade routes, and defend fleets
forts occupied by soldiers
headquarters where missionaries lived and worked
settled villages where native americans could farm and worship like catholic europeans
what marked the english's entrance into the race to take advantage of opportunities in the atlantic world?
attempt to colonize roanoke
first known english explorer to cross the atlantic, and he explored newfoundland canada
(english) was searching for a trade route to asia (northwest passage)
sir martin frobisher
(english) tried to find the northwest passage. made three trips and traveled near greenland, baffin island and labrador
explored for english and dutch - discovered hudson river and bay
privately owned ships hired by a government to attack foreign ships
a sea dog who raided spanish ports and the first captain to sail around the world
sir francis drake
why did the english want to establish permanent settlements in the americas (4)
a base from which they could attack spanish ships & cities, northwest passage, new markets, overcrowding in england
tried twice to start a colony on roanoke island
sir walter raleigh
certificate of permission from the king
a company found and run by investors who share the company's profits and losses
English joint-stock company
jamestown was named for..?
king james I
the chief of a powerful native american tribe near jamestown
why was the location of jamestown bad?
it was near swamps and pools of standing water where mosquitos bred, so colonists got diseases (typhus, malaryia)
strong leader of jamestown
why did jamestown almost fail (5)
conflict with NA, expectations of colonists, location, starvation, poor leadership
what happened when the virginia comany could not provide a steady profit?
king james took away the charter and made virginia into a royal colony
a colony with a governor appointed by the king
legislature in VA made up of representatives from the colony
house of burgesses
responsible for sending tobacco to europe
crop that saved virginia from total failure
what was the headright system?
giving everyone who came to the colony the right to fifty acres of land
what made more english colonists want to travel to america?
the promise of land and farmers losing homes
why were farmers losing homes in england?
landowners realized they could make more money raising livestock than from renting land to farmers
people who had to work for a master for a period of time under contract in return for the master paying their way to america
what was the english pattern of conquest?
to remake cultures they conquered instead of blending cultures (all or nothing)
powhatans younger brother who carried out a surprise attack on jamestown and later at the cheasapeake bay
raised a private army to fight the NA, but turned it on the english instead
the even where jamestown was attacked burned by its own people
why was bacon's rebellion important? (2)
settlers were frustrated with government concerned only with wealthy planters, poorer colonists were unwilling to tolerate this
italian who sailed for the french searching for the northwest passage. he entered the ny harbor and explored north carolina to newfoundland
giovanni de verrazano
french explorer who made three trips to canada. because of his explorations, the french claimed a land in canada called new france. he explored the saint lawrence river as well.
he founded the first successful french colonyquebec). he also explored some of the lakes in the northeast
samuel de champlain
traveled together for the french to explore the great lakes and traveled along the mississippi river by canoe
joliet and marquette
even though they did not find the northwest passage, the french still grew rich from new france. why?
the fur trade
what native american tribe dominated others during the time of the fur trade?
the new england colonies
connecticut, rhode island, massachusettes, vermont, new hampshire, maine
why was henry the eighth so important?
he broke from the catholic church and founded the anglican church. some people wanted to separate from this church and thusly traveled to the new world
wanted a purer kind of church, also known as separatists
an agreement made to ensure that the group would stick together in the new world, even though their religions differed
the mayflower compact
helped draw up the mayflower compact and was elected governor of the plymouth colony thirty times
he wrote a history of the plymouth colony called History of Plymouth Plantation
who helped the plymouth colonists and taught them to plant corn?
a movement where many settlers first came to the new world
why did the people form the massachusettes bay colony?
the puritans wanted a place where there religion was accepted, but they were unwilling to accept any other religion in their colony.
found in the center of a puritan town
a founder of the massahcusettes bay colony who thought the colony should be an example to people throughout the world
what colony should be an example for the world?
massachusettes bay colony
in what colony could children be expected to live twice as long as in early virginia
massachusettes bay colony
before the salem witch trials, what important political change occurred in the massachusettes bay and plymoouth colonies?
william and mary joined them as one royal colony, known as massachusettes
he led a group of settlers from massachusettes to connecticut
the fundamental orders was written for this colony as a new plan of government
originally a part of massachusettes, these colonies were inhabited by puritans and later broke apart
new hampshire and maine
quarreled with puritan authorites concerning land rights. he also believed that the government should not interfere or punish settlers over matters of religion. he fouded providence, rhode island
brother in law of anne hutchinson who founded exeterNew hampshire) after disagreeing with puritan authorities
didnt agree with puritan authority, stood up in court and won but was banished anyway
native american leader
members of the mass bay colony attacked pequot. few survived.
also known as king philip
united indian groups from RI to maine in an attempt to drive out the english
king philips war
new jersey, pennsylvania, new york, delaware
first to settle new york...?
what was the dutch company developed for trade in the americas?
dutch west india company
new netherland was started by the...?
dutch west india company
where was new amsterdam
mouth of the hudson
traded goods with north americans for the right to use manhattan
last dutch governor often at odds with the colonists since they wanted more self government
who decided to take the dutch colony?
king charles II
sent fleets of ships to new amsterdam to take it over for the english
duke of york
colony granted by a king or queen to an individual who had full governing rights
examples of proprietary colonies...?
new york, new jersey, pa, delaware
this colony was originally proprietary and part of the duke of york's charter, but it failed and was changed into a royal colony
believed all people should be treated equally in church and state
this colony was religiously tolerant of every religion
settlers from sweden started this colony
explain delaware's controllers
peter stuyvesant captured it from swedish, then duke of york captured it, gave it to william penn, who allowed it to be its own colony
maryland, the carolinas, and georgia
colony founded for roman catholics
had the idea to form maryland and his charter was approved by the king
son of george calvert became in charge of maryland
protected catholics from persecution in the maryland colony, but offered no protections for non christians
maryland toleration act
king charles II granted the carolinas to...?
a group of english noblemen
when did the carolinas become royal colonies
they were separated when two governors were appointed; sc became a royal colony first, then nc
a colony managed by trustees, even though it was a proprietary colony
led the trustees in charge of georgia
georgia was founded for...?
people in jail in england for being unable to pay their debts
georgia served as a barrier...?
to prevent a spanish attack from florida
who was allowed to live in georgia?
no catholics, all protestants
laws in georgia?
no drinking or slaves, but eventually the people won and the trustees gave their charter back to the king & georgia became a royal colony
daughter of powhatan, saved life; converted to christianity and died of small pow