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"In thirty-three days I passed over to the Indies with the fleet which the most illustrious King and Queen. . .gave me; where I found very many islands peopled with inhabitants beyond number. And, of them all, I have taken possession for their Highnesses. . .To the first which I found, I gave the name San Salvador. . ." The author of this statement was

C) Christopher Columbus

By the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), Spain had authority to exploit all of
A) South America except Colombia.

B) North and South America except Brazil.

In the 1670s thousands of Pueblo rebelled to drive the

A) Spanish from New Mexico.

When discussing the question of the terrible decimation of the Native American peoples after 1500, your text concludes that most deaths resulted from

A) European diseases.

The exploration and exploitation of the Americas in the sixteenth century was dominated by

A) Spain.

The king who brought the Protestant Reformation to England by declaring himself head of the English Church in order to divorce his first wife was

B) Henry VIII.

The bold captain encouraged by Queen Elizabeth I to plunder Spanish merchant ships on the high seas was

E) Francis Drake.

The earliest British colonies were initially financed by

C) joint-stock companies.

A serious problem in the early years of Jamestown was the

B) lack of pioneering skills among the settlers.

The Mayflower Compact was an early example of the idea that

D) a society should be based on a set of rules chosen by its members.

The religious dissenters who established Plymouth colony were the

E) Puritans.

The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was

A) John Winthrop.

Rhode Island, distinguished for its religious freedom and rigid separation of church and state, was founded by

D) Roger Williams.

She was banished from Massachusetts for claiming that she regularly received divine insights.

B) Anne Hutchinson

The colony founded as a religious refuge for Catholics was

D) Maryland.

The colony whose charter was a grandiose plan, written with the help of political philosopher John Locke and designed to recreate a hereditary nobility and feudal society was

E) Carolina.

________ traders were most likely to see Indians as essential trading partners.

B) Dutch

The proprietor of the colony founded as a haven for Quakers was

C) William Penn

Part of the so-called "Columbian exchange" which was domesticated by many tribes to form a staple of their diet and which also contributed enormously to the success of the English colonies, was

B) corn

The "headright" was commonly used in the southern colonies and some of the middle colonies to

D) provide land for churches

In some colonies, landowners paid an annual tax called a ________, as a way for European nations to derive income from their colonies

D) quitrent

________ servants agreed to work for a stated period in return for their transportation to America.

E) Indentured

In 1619 the first African blacks brought to English North America were probably sold in

A) Jamestown

The great staple of the Virginia colonial economy was

A) tobacco.

Bacon's Rebellion occurred in

B) Virginia.

The main supporters of Virginia's royal governor, Sir William Berkeley, during Bacon's Rebellion were the

A) well-established, powerful planters.

The South Carolina cash crop of indigo

D) was introduced by plantation owner Eliza Lucas.

Slave labor so dominated the rice plantations of ________ from its founding that by 1730 a majority of its population was black.

A) South Carolina

The few attacks on the institution of slavery during the colonial period were usually led by

A) Quakers.

James Oglethorpe received a charter to establish ________, the final English colony, as a refuge for honest people imprisoned for debt.

B) Georgia

In 1771, frontier Regulators from ________, protesting their lack of representation in their colonial assembly, were defeated in a pitched battle with government troops

C) North Carolina

Under the terms of the Halfway Covenant

A) halfway members of the church could present their children for baptism but could not receive communion.

As a result of the Glorious Revolution in 1688, ________ became a royal colony in the early 1690s

A) Massachusetts.

In 1636 the Massachusetts General Court appropriated funds for the first college in America, which was later named

E) Harvard

The American crop which was easily cultivated, had a high yield per acre, and could be used as food for both humans and livestock was

B) corn.

Because of their ethnic and religious heterogeneity, the colonies which possessed traits that later would be seen as distinctly "American" were

E) the Middle Colonies.

In the early eighteenth century, large numbers of ________ Presbyterians immigrated to backcountry Pennsylvania.

A) Scots-Irish

The New York printer whose trial for seditious libel became one of the most celebrated tests of freedom of the press in the history of journalism was

B) John Peter Zenger.

The "Paxton Boys" revolt in Pennsylvania

D) revealed western dissatisfaction with the state assembly.

In nearly every colony, the most powerful part of the government tended to be the

E) governor.

In the 1680s, James II tried to unify royal control of the northern colonies by creating the

B) Dominion of North America.

The seventeenth-century economic theory which viewed colonies primarily as sources of raw materials is most accurately labeled

B) mercantilism.

A fundamental goal of British mercantilism was to

B) produce manufactured goods for export and limit imports of manufactured items.

"The surest way for a nation to increase in riches is to prevent the importation of such foreign commodities as may be raised at home. . . ." This statement is an example of the concept of

C) mercantilism.

Beginning in the 1650s, Parliament tried to prohibit foreign goods and vessels from colonial ports and to channel colonial raw materials to England through the

D) Navigation Acts.

The system of Navigation Acts originated in the 1650s in response to the stiff commercial competition offered by the

C) Dutch

British mercantile policy discouraged Americans from exporting

A) woolen goods and hats.

The Great Awakening tended to emphasize

C) an emotional and revivalistic style of religion.

The most famous native-born revivalist of the Great Awakening was the intellectually brilliant author of sermons such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." He was

C) Jonathan Edwards.

The view that the universe is based on impersonal, scientific laws which govern the behavior of all matter, animate and inanimate, was basic to the

E) Enlightenment.

America's most famous Enlightenment figure, inventor of the lightening rod and bifocals, organizer of a hospital and a circulating library, was

B) Benjamin Franklin

Although forced to surrender in 1754 to French troops constructing Fort Dusquesne, the young Virginian who emerged as a hero to fellow colonists was

B) George Washington.

In 1763 the Ottawa chief, ________, led one last effort to drive the whites back across the Appalachians.

D) Pontiac

In an effort to help support the increased cost of colonial administration, Parliament passed the ________ Act in 1764, placing tariffs on coffee, wines, and other major imports.

B) Sugar

The concept that every member of Parliament stood for the interests of the entire empire was called ________ representation.

A) virtual

Illegal, often violent, resistance by the Sons of Liberty to the ________ may be seen as marking the start of the revolution.

D) Stamp Act

On the same day it repealed the Stamp Act, Parliament passed the ________ Act stating that the colonies were "subordinate" to its wishes

C) Declaratory

The militant Boston leader of resistance to the Tea Act and of the Boston "Tea Party" was

C) Sam Adams.

In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British passed a series of laws which, among other things, closed the port of Boston and strengthened the power of the governor of Massachusetts. In the colonies, these acts were known as the ________ Acts.

A) Intolerable

In January 1776, the British pushed the colonists toward independence by hiring ________ mercenaries.

B) Hessian

The author of Common Sense, which boldly called for complete independence and attacked not only King George III, but also the idea of monarchy itself, was

D) Thomas Paine.

The battles of Trenton and Princeton in December 1776 were important because

A) the American army's morale was boosted after a series of defeats.

The major British defeat of 1777 at ________ was caused mostly by the extremely poor coordination of the campaign.

D) Saratoga

The United States' most valuable ally in the Revolution was

D) France.

During the winter of 1778, Washington's army endured severe shortages of food and clothing while camped at

C) Valley Forge.

The law which divided the western territories into 6-mile-square townships was the

D) Land Ordinance of 1785.

The measure which established governments for the western territories was the

A) Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

The outstanding painter of the great events of the Revolution, best known for works such as The Battle of Bunker's Hill and The Declaration of Independence was

C) John Trumbull.

In 1786 Massachusetts debtor farmers rebelled against the state government and were defeated in battle. This was ________ Rebellion.

B) Shays's

It was difficult to amend the Articles of Confederation because amendments had to be approved by

E) specially elected conventions in nine of the thirteen states.

The Great Compromise settled the issue of representation in Congress by allowing

A) each state two Senators and a number of Representatives that depended on its population.

The principle of the Three-fifths Compromise was that

D) three-fifths of the slaves would be counted in determining each state's representation and share of direct federal taxes.

The first national government of the United States of America operated under what set of laws?

D) Articles of Confederation

The French demand in 1797-1798 for a bribe as a precondition to negotiations with America was called the

E) XYZ Affair

In his "Farewell Address," George Washington indicated his

B) belief that political parties were harmful and divisive.

The president's veto power and the impeachment power of Congress are both examples of

E) checks and balances.

During the ratification of the Constitution, the bitter disputes in ________ led to the writing of the Federalist Papers.

B) New York

The Bill of Rights guaranteed that Congress would not interfere with the right(s) to

E) freedom of speech, press, and religion.

Alexander Hamilton believed that the United States needed a

C) strong national government.

________ advocated a "loose" interpretation of the "necessary and proper" clause to support the creation of a national bank.

B) Alexander Hamilton

The president known for his "pell-mell" style of plain dress and informal entertaining was

E) Thomas Jefferson.

The purpose of the ________ was to maintain Federalist control of the judicial branch against Jeffersonianism

A) Judiciary Act of 1801

The Federalist Chief Justice who established the power of the Supreme Court to invalidate federal laws in Marbury v. Madison (1803) was

B) John Marshall.

In Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall cleverly established the power of the Supreme Court to

A) invalidate federal laws held to be in conflict with the Constitution.

During his first term, Jefferson fought a small naval war, attempting to resist the blackmail of the

B) Barbary pirates.

The die-hard Federalists who organized a scheme to break away from the Union and create a "northern confederacy" in 1804 were the

A) Essex Junto.

The episode which immediately prompted the Embargo Act was the

A) attack on the Chesapeake by the Leopard.

In the War of 1812 the most effective American action against British shipping was by

D) privateering merchantmen.

The major U.S. city sacked and burned by the British in 1814 was

D) Washington.

As a result of the War of 1812, the Federalists

E) were destroyed as a political party.

The measure in which Great Britain and the United States agreed to set a limit on the number of armed vessels on the Great Lakes was the

E) Rush-Bagot Agreement.

"The American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." The source of the above was

B) the Monroe Doctrine.

The "Era of Good Feelings" was noted for the

C) absence of any divisive political and economic issues.

The essential question involved in the Missouri Compromise was: would Missouri

C) come into the Union as a free or slave state?

The president chosen in 1824 by the House of Representatives when no candidate received a majority of votes in the Electoral College was

E) John Quincy Adams.

The Tariff of 1828 was so high that in the South it was called the

E) Tariff of Abominations.

During John Quincy Adams' presidency, the politician who prepared for the next election by relying on his military reputation and portraying himself as losing the presidency in 1824 due to the "corrupt bargain" was

E) Andrew Jackson.

The basic concept underlying the "spoils system" was that

B) party workers must be rewarded with political office after a successful campaign.

Jackson's advisers who did not hold regular cabinet appointments were called the

C) Kitchen Cabinet.

________ was a leading enemy of the Second National Bank of the United States.

E) Andrew Jackson

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