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promotion

communication by marketers that informs, persuades, and reminds potential buyers of a product in order to influence an opinion or elicit a response

promotional strategy

a plan for the optimal use of the elements of promotion: advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion

competitive advantage

one or more unique aspects of an organization that cause target consumers to patronize that firm rather than competitors

promotional mix

the combination of promotional tools -- including advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion -- used to reach the target market and fulfill the organization's overall goes

advertising

impersonal, one-way mass communication about a product or organization that is paid for by a marketer

public relations

the marketing function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies areas within the organization the public may be interested in, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance

publicity

public information about a company, product, service, or issue appearing in the mass media as a news item

sales promotion

marketing activities-- other than personal selling, advertising, and public relations -- that stimulate consumer buying and dealer effectiveness

personal selling

a purchase situation involving a personal, paid-for communication between two people in an attempt to influence each other

communication

the process by which we exchange or share meanings though a common set of symbols

interpersonal communication

direct, face-to-face communication between two or more people

mass communication

the communication of a concept or message to large audiences

sender

the originator of the message in the communication process

encoding

the conversion of a sender's ideas and thoughts into a message, usually in the form of words or signs

channel

a medium of communication -- such as radio, or newspaper -- for transmitting a message

noise

anything that interferes with, distorts, or slows down the transmission of information

receiver

the person who decodes a message

decoding

interpretation of the language and symbols sent by the source through a channel

feedback

the receiver's response to a message

corporate blogs

blogs that are sponsored by a company or one of its brands and maintained by one or more of the company's employees

noncorporate blogs

independent blogs that are not associated with the marketing efforts of any particular company or brand

AIDA concept

a model that outlines the process for achieving promotional goals in terms of stages of consumer involvement with the message, stands for attention, interest, desire, and action

push strategy

a marketing strategy that uses aggressive personal selling and trade advertising to convince a wholesaler or a retailer to carry and sell particular merchandise

pull strategy

a marketing strategy that stimulates consumer demand to obtain product distribution

integrated marketing communicationsIMC)

the careful coordination of all promotional messages for a product or a service to assure the consistency of messages at every contact point where a company meets the consumer

advertising response function

a phenomenon in which spending for advertising and sales promotion increases sales or market share up to a certain level but then produces diminishing returns

institutional advertising

a form of advertising designed to enhance a company's image rather than promote a particular product

product advertising

a form of advertising that touts the benefits of a specific good or service

advocacy advertising

a form of advertising in which an organization expresses its views on controversial issues or responses to media attacks

pioneering advertising

a form of advertising designed to stimulate primary demand for a new product or product category

competitive advertising

a form of advertising designed to influence demand for a specific brand

comparative advertising

a form of advertising that compares two or more specifically named or shown competing brands on one or more specific attributes

advertising campaign

a series of related advertisements focusing on a common theme, slogan, and set of advertising appeals

advertising objective

a specific communication task that a campaign should accomplish for a specified target audience during a specified period

advertising appeal

a reason for a person to buy a product

unique selling proposition

a desirable, exclusive, and believable advertising appeal selected as the theme for a campaign

medium

the channel used to convey a message to a target market

media planning

the series of decisions advertisers make regarding the selection and use of media, allowing the marketer to optimally and cost-effectively communicate the message to the target audience

cooperative advertising

an arrangement in which the manufacturer and the retailer split the costs of advertising the manufacturer's brand

infomercial

a 30-minute or longer advertisement that looks more like a tv talk show than a sales pitch

advergaming

placing advertising messages in web-based or video games to advertise or promote a product, service, organization, or issue

media mix

the combination of media to be used for a promotional campaign

cost per contact

the cost of reaching one member of the target market

reach

the number of target consumers exposed to a commercial at least once during a specific period, usually four weeks

frequency

the number of times an individual is exposed to a given message during a specific period

audience selectivity

the ability of an advertising medium to reach a precisely defined market

media schedule

designation of the media, the specific publications or programs, and the insertion dates of advertising

continuous media schedule

a media scheduling strategy in which advertising is run steadily throughout the advertising period; used for products in the latter stages of the product life cycle

flighted media schedule

a media scheduling strategy in which ads are run heavily every other month or every two weeks, to achieve a greater impact with an increased frequency and reach at those times

pulsing media schedule

the media scheduling that uses continuous scheduling throughout the year coupled with a flighted schedule during the best sales periods

seasonal media schedule

a media scheduling strategy that runs advertising only during times of the year when the product is most likely to be used

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