Apologia Biology Module #6 Flashcards

30 terms by tblakemore 

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Exploring Creation With Biology Flashcards

Absorption

The transport of dissolved substances into cells

Digestion

The breakdown of absorbed substances

Respiration

The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy

Excretion

The removal of soluble waste materials

Egestion

The removal of nonsoluble waste materials

Secretion

The release of biosynthesized substances

Homeostasis

Maintaining the status quo

Reproduction

Producing more cells

Cell Wall

A rigid substance on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and animal cells

Plasma Membrane

The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cells surroundings

Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

Mitochondria

The organelles in which nutrients are converted into energy

Lysosome

The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids

Ribosomes

Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for proteins synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum

An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membrane that performs several tasks within a cell

Central Vacuole

A larger vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes

Phagocytosis

The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells

Golgi Bodies

The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell

Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure

Nuclear Membrane

A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

Chromatin

Clusters of DNA,RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

Phospholipid

A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group

Passive Transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion

Active Transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy

Isotonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution

Hypertonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution

Plasmolysis

Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to the lack of water

Cytolysis

The rupturing of a cell due to the excess internal pressure

Hypotonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution

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