Chap:2 The chemistry of life.

41 terms by 2022199 

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ATOM

basic unit of matter

NUCLEUS

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

ELECTRON

an elementary particle with negative charge

ELEMENTS

matter composed of basic substances

ISOTOPES

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

COMPOUND

is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

IONIC BOND

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

IONS

form when atoms lose or gain electrons

COVALENT BOND

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

MOLECULE

the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

van der Waals forces

intermolecular forces of attraction

COHESION

is an attraction between molecules of the same substance

ADHESION

is an attraction between molecules of the different substance

MIXTURE

a substance consisting of two or more elements mixed together not with chemical bonding)

SOLUTION

when ions gradually dispersed throughout in the water

SOLUTE

the substance that is dissolved

SOLVENT

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

SUSPENSIONS

mixture of water and nondissolved material

pH scale

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ionsH+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14

ACID

compound that forms hydrogen ionsH+) in a solution

BASE

compound that forms hydroxide ionsOH-) in a solution

BUFFERS

weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH

MONOMERS

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

POLYMERS

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

CARBOHYDRATES

main source of energy for the body. Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

MONOSACCHARIDES

single sugar molecules

POLYSACCHARIDES

large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides

LIPIDS

fats and oils

NUCLEIC ACIDS

very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell

NUCLEOTIDES

building blocks of nucleic acids

RNA

type of nucleic acid, contains sugar ribose

DNA

type of nucleic acid, contains sugar deoxyribose

PROTEINS

polymers of amino acids

AMINO ACIDS

building blocks of proteins

CHEMICAL REACTION

the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances

REACTANTS

the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

PRODUCTS

the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

ACTIVATION ENERGY

energy needed to get a reaction started

CATALYST

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

ENZYMES

proteins that act as biological catalysts

SUBSTRATES

the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

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