Chapter 10 Bio 10.6-10.15

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genotype

carried in its sequence of DNA bases, particular gene specifies a polypeptide

DNA of gene

transcribed into RNA which is translated into polypeptide

genes

codes for making proteins

protein synthesis

takes place on a ribosome into the cytoplasm

nucleus

where DNA is stored

message from the gene

what is sent out to the ribosome

mRNA

messenger RNA, takes code of a gene- from DNA to ribosome, moves codon at a time

rRNA

ribosomal RNA, makes up ribosomes

tRNA

transfer RNA, transfers amino acids to ribosome to match them with code from DNA, w/ complementary anti codon , pairs with each codon, adding its amino acid to peptide chain

words of DNA language

triplets of bases called codons

codon

A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid of a polypeptide or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code, doesn't represent more than one amino acid

in the nucleus

where the DNA helix unzips and RNA nucleotides line up along one strand of DNA following base pairing rules

enzyme RNA polymerase

links RNA nulceotides

single stranded mRNA

peels away from gene, DNA strand rejoin

inititation

attachment of RNA polymerase to promoter and start of RNA synthesis

promoter

A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA

elongation

RNA elongates

termination

terminator sequence signals end of gene

terminator

A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene

RNA splicing

removal of noncoding portionsintrons) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis

introns

non-coding segments on mRNA, spliced out

extrons

parts of gene that are expressed, joined together for continuous coding sequence

translation

takes place in the cytoplasm, ribosome attaches to mRNA and translates its message into a specific polypeptide aided by tRNA

tRNA

interpreter, structure allowed for picking up appropriate amino acids and recognizing appropriate codon

anti-codon

base triplet on one end of tRNA, complementary to codon on mRNA, recognizes a particular code on mRNA

ribosome

coordinates functioning of mRNA and tRNA to make polypeptide, consists of two subuits- each made of proteins and rRNA

subunits

hold tRNA and mRNA close together during translation, one binding site mRNA, two for tRNA

initiation, elongation, termination

3 phases

polypeptide initiation

mRNA, a specific tRNA, and ribosome subunits assemble and determine where translation will begin

2 steps of polypeptide initiation

mRNA binds to small subunit and initiator tRNA binds to start codon, anti-codon UAC binds to AUG, large subunit binds to small one ribosome, p site, holds growing polypeptide

start codon

On mRNA, the specific three-nucleotide sequenceAUG) to which an initiator tRNA molecule binds, starting translation of genetic information

codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation

each addition of an amino acid occurs in three step elongation process3 steps)

elonfation

continues until a stop codon reaches ribosomes A site- terminates translation

transcription

sequence of codons DNA-RNA

translation

sequence of codons in mRNA- primary structure of a polypeptide

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