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Theodore Roosevelt

This man had been elected vice president to McKinley, and when McKinley suddenly died, he became the youngest man, at age 42, to enter into presidency. He had a reputation of a wild man, but soon became a champion of cautious, moderate change.

Mark Hanna

Had warned McKinley about selecting Roosevelt as his running mate, exclaiming "Now look, that damned cowboy is president of the United States!"

Square Deal

President Roosevelt's plan for reform, included targeting the powerful railroad industry and interstate commerce.

Hepburn Regulation Act

1906, Sought to restore some regulatory authority to the government by giving the ICC authority to inspect the books of railroad companies.

Pure Food and Drug Act

Restricted the sale of dangerous or ineffective medicines.

Upton Sinclair

Wrote the powerful novel "The Jungle," which appeared in 1906. It feature appalling descriptions of conditions in the meatpacking industry.

Meat Inspection Act

Ultimately helped eliminate many diseases once transmitted in impure meat.

Gifford Pinchot

Roosevelt's chief forester, who worked with him to seize all the forests and many of the water power sites still in the public domain before the bill became law.

Conservationism

Promoting policies that protect land for carefully managed development.

National Reclamation Act

1902, Provided federal funds for the construction of dams, reservoirs, and canals in the west. Basically projects that would open new lands doe cultivation and provide cheap electric power.

John Muir

The nations leading preservationists and the founder of the Sierra Club.

Presevationiam

In association with the National Park System to protect public land from any exploitation or development at all.

Hetch Hetchy Controversy

Hetch Hetchy valley was a spectacular valley highly populated with naturalists. Residents from San Francisco, however, wanted to use the territory to get water for their growing population. The battle went on for over a decade over whether or not to have a dam. Eventually, when the issue was put on a ballot in 1908, it passed and construction of the dam began after World War I.

Panic of 1907

A series of recession began. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's "mad" economic policies for the disaster. He quickly disagreed and ensured business leaders that he would not interfere with their private recovery efforts.

J.P. Morgan

A great financier who helped construct a pool of the assets of several important New York banks to prop up shaky financial institutions.

William Howard Taft

Assumed presidency in 1909. He had been Roosevelt's most trusted lieutenant and his hand picked successor; progressive reformers believed him to be one of their own.

Payne -Aldrich Tariff

Reduced tariff rates scarcely at all.

Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy

Ballinger was charged with having once connived to turn over valuable public coal lands in Alaska to a private syndicate for personal profit. Pinchot got the evidence of this and took it to the president, but the president decided it was groundless. So Pinchot leaked the story to the press and asked Congress to investigate the scandal.

New Nationalism

When Roosevelt made his speech in Osawatomie, Kansas, he outlined a set of principles which he labeled this. They made it clear that he had moved away from the cautious reform conservationism. He argued social justice was possible only through the efforts of a strong federal government.

Robert La Follette

Senator; the great Wisconsin progressive.He had been working since 1911 to secure the presidential nomination for himself. But in Feb. 1912 he stumbled by having a nervous breakdown in a speech, brought on by the severe illness of his daughter.

Old Guard

Controlled the Republican National Committee.

Progressive Party

Political Party launched by Roosevelt to nominate himself as a presidential candidate. He approached the battle feeling, as he put it, "fit as a bull moose." Which is how the party got its nickname.

Woodrow Wilson

The governor of New Jersey and the only genuinely progressicve candidate in the race for presidency on the forty-sixth ballot. He was the Democratic party nomination, and he presented a program that came to be called "New Freedom."

Eugene Debs

A socialist running for president in 1912, received 6 percent of the vote.

Underwood Simmons Tariff

Provided cuts sufficent enough to introduce real competition into the American markets, thus resulting in weakening the power of trusts.

Federal Reserve Act

1913, created twelve regional banks, each to be owned and controlled by the individual banks of its district. The regional Federal Reserve banks would hold a certain percentage of the assests of their member banks in reserve.

Federal Trade Commission Act

Created a regulatory agency that would help businesses determine in advance whether their actions would be acceptable to the government. The agency would also have authority to launch prosecution against "unfair trade practices."

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Another form of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, just stronger. Made to show an advancment in trying to end trusts, but didn't do much more than the previous act. Wilson lost interest in this and did little to protect it.

Louis Brandies

Appointed to the Surpreme Court by Wilson in January 1916. He was the first jew and the most advanced progressive to ever serve there.

Keating Owen Act

supported by Wilson in 1916, prohibited shipment across state lines of goods produced by underage children, thus giving an expanded importance to the constitutional clause assigning Congress the task of regulating Interstate Commerce.

Smith Lever Act

1914, Demonstrated another way in which the Federal Government could influence local behaivor; it offered matching federal grants to states that agreed to support agricultural extension education.

Big Stick Diplomacy

The foreing policy durin the progressive years that reflected many of the same impulses that were movtivating domestic reform. But more than that, it reflected the nation's new sense of itself as a world power.

Great White Fleet

The American navy. The ships were painted white and with that they reflected of the ocean looking more magnificant than they really were.

Roosevelt Corollary

Announced in 1904 by Roosevelt, Stated that The United States had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere but also to intervene itself in the domestic affairs of its neighbors if those neighbors proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their own.

Platt Amendment

1902, This amendment gave the U.S. the right to prevent any foreign power from intruding into the new nation of Cuba.

John Hay

Roosevelt's secratary of State, who was dispatched to negotiate an agreement with Columbian diplomats in Washington that would allow construction of the Panama to being without delay. Under heavy pressure from American, a Columbian diplomat, Tomas Herran, unwisely signed an agreement giving the U.S. perpetual rights to the Panama. In return, the U.S. would pay 10 million and an annual rent of 250,000.

Phillip Bunau Varilla

Cheif engineer of the French Canal Project. In 1903 he helped organize and finance a revolution in Panama with the support of the U.S.

Panama Canal

Linked the Atlantic and the Pacific by creating a channel through Central America. Roosevelt's most celebrated acomplishment.

Dollar Diplomacy

Taft's secratary of state, Philander C. Knox, worked agressively to extend American investments into less developed regions. Critics called his policies this.

Porfirio Diaz

Mexican corrupt dictator. In 1910 he was overthrown by the popular leader Francisco Madero, who promised democratic reform but seemed hostile toward American Businessmen in Mexico. The United States quietly encouraged a reactionary general, Victoriano Huerto, to dispose Madero early in 1913.

Venustiano Carranza

Led the Constitutionalists, who Wilson wanted to bring power to in the conflict with Huerta.

Pancho Villa

Carranza's erstwhile lieutenant. His military position deteriorated and Wilson Abandonned him.

John J. Pershing

General ordered by Wilson to lead ab American expeditionary force across the Mexican Border in the pursuit of Villa. They never found Villa but did partake in two ugly battles with Carranza forces.

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