embalming 1

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a hand pump

A method of obtaining pressure for the injection of aterial fulid is

Hydroaspirator

Which of the following is NOT a method of obtaining pressure for injections of aterial fluid?

an arterial tube

An insturment which is inserted into the artery for the introdunction of fluid is

groove director

An insturment which may be used to guide an aterial or vein tube into a vessel is the

The purpose of the embalming analysis is to determine

the proper embalming techinque and chemicals to use.

intrinsic or extrinsic

Variable factors encountered with every dead body are classified as

Atmospheric conditions

Which of the following is an extrnsic factor to be considered in embalming a dead body?

needle injector

The method of mouth closure which employes wires attached to the small tacks which are incerted into the upper and lower jaw is called the

mandibular suture

The method of mouth closure employing a suture passed through the septum of the nose and around the mandible is called the

lower one-third of the orbit.

In the normal eye closure, the eyelids should meet in the

sternoclavicular articulation

The right common carotid artery begins at the level of the

superior border of the thyroid cartilage

The common carotid arteries terminate at the level of the

Sternoclavicular articulation to the anterior surface of the lobe of the ear

The linear guide for the common carotid artery is from the

center of the axillary space parallel to the long axis of the upper extremity

The linear guide for the axillary artery is from the

center of the base of the axillary space to the center of the inner bend of the elbow

The linear guide for the brachial artery is from the

center of the antecubital fossa to the center of the base of the index finger

The linear guide for the radial artery is from the

center of the inguinal ligament to the center of the medial condyle of the femur.

The linear guide for the femur artery is from the

center of the popliteal space parallel to the long axis of the lower extremity

The linear guide for the popliteal artery is form the

Ulnar artery

On the surface of the forarm from the center of the antecubital fossa to a point between the forth and fifth fingers is the linear guide for the

posterior tibial artery

From the center of the popliteal space to a point midway between the medial malleolus and the calcaneus bone is the linear guide for the

dorsalis pedis artery

From the center of the anterior surface of the ankle joint to a point between the first and second toe is the linear guide for the

anterior tibial artery

From the lateral border of the patella to the anterior surface of the ankle joint is the linear guide for the

common carotid

The anatomical guide for the ___ artery is along the medial border of the sternocleidmastoid muscle.

brachial

The anatomical guide for the ___ artery is posterior to the medial border of the belly of the biceps brachii muscle.

femoral

Through the center of the femoral triangle bordered laterally by the sartorius muscle and medially by the adductor longus muscle us the anatomical guide for the __ artery.

axillary

Just behind the medial border of the coracobrachialis muscle is the anatomical guide for the ___ artery.

radial

The anatomical guide for the __ artery is just lateral to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis muscle.

lateral

The ulnar artery lies along the ___ border of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.

subclavian

The right __ artery is shorter then the left one due to its orgin

external iliac

The ___ artery changes its name to femoral and is used in the embalming of an autopsied body.

decending aorta

The inferior vena cava is the vein which accompanies the

sartorius

In the femoral triangle the femoral artery is bordered laterally by the ___ muscle.

adductor longus

The femoral artery is bordered medially by the ___ muscle.

adductor magnus

The femoral artery originates at a point behind the center of the inguinal ligament and terminates at the opening of the ___ muscle.

popliteal

The ___ artery which originates at the opening in the adductor magus muscle, terminates at the inferior border of the popliteous muscle.

Time Weighted Average (TWA)

A concentration of .75 parts formaldehyde per million parts of air (.75 ppm) averaged over an 8 hour period.

Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)

A concentration of 2 parts formaldehyde per million parts of air (2 ppm) during a 15 minute period.

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines IDLH as 20 parts formaldehyde per million parts of air (1996);NIOSH has determined that at this level of exposure serious injury and or death may result

anterior tibial artery

The ___ artery courses along the lateral margin of the crest of the tibia, passes through the center of the anterioir surface of the ankle joint and becomes the dorsalis pedis artery.

anasarca

Distention of the body tissues is a complication of

age, weight, disease

One of the factors to be considered in selecting the artery to be injected is

1/2

When using the gravity method of obtaining pressure for injecting aterial fluid, the embalmer can expect to receive approximately ___ pounds per pressure per foot of elevation above the point of injection.

set before the rate of flow

When injecting a body with any mechanical injector, the desired pressure should be

one point

The injection and drainage procedure in which the injection and drainage are accomplished through the same incision is called

PEL of STEL

permissible exposure limit..under 2ppm

PEL for TWA

permissible exposure limit...under .5ppm

Restricted Cervical Injection

method of injection wherein both common carotid arteries are raised

Split Injection

injection from one site and drainage from another

Primary Dilution

the dilution attained as the embalming solution is mixed in the embalming machine

Secondary Dilution

weakening of the embalming fluid by the fluids in the body, both vascular and interstitial

Distribution (Fluid)

the movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries

Diffusion (Fluid)

passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extravascular location; movement of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids.

Osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

Pressure (Filtration)

positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming fluid through the capillary wall to diffuse with the interstitial fluids; causing passage of embalming fluid from an intravascular to an extravascular position

diminish secondary dilution, remove intravasculor discolorations, and prevent distention

The embalmer should remove as much blood from the body as possible to

alternate

The method of drainage in relaton to injection in which an amount of aterial fluid is injected and then drainage is allowed to flow for a period of time, each one seperatly is the __ method.

Intermittent Drainage

Restricted Drainage; method of drainage in which the drainage is stopped at intervals while the injection continues

continuous

method of drainage in relation to injection in which both injection and drainage are allowed to flow freely throughout the operation is the ___ method.

femoral artery

Which of the following blood vessels is in the orgin of the popliteal artery?

case analysis

Those pre embalming consideratons given to the case at hand are called

tilted to the right approximatly 15 degrees

During embalming the head should be

index

The amound of HCHO formaldehyde measured in grams dissoved in 100mL of water refers to

Preservative

chemicals which inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which such bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes and lysins of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to form less susceptible to decomposition

anticoagulants

Chemimals which retard the increase in viscosity of blood are

surfactant

The component of arterial fluid which is designed to decrease the molecular conhesion at the surface of a liquid is a

dye

A component of aterial fluids which imparts color to a solvent is a

humectants

Chemical additives that act as moisture retainers in the tissues are termed

100 ppm

There is an immediate danger to health and life if exposed to formaldehyde levels above

water conditioners

Chemical additives employed to offset the effects of water with an excessive mineral content are called

definite firming

High index fluids generally cause

coagulation

the action of ch2o formaldehyde on protein is termed

with aterial injections

Co-injections fluids are used

call the coroner/police/medical examiner

If, at the removal, you suspect foul play you should:

humectant

A 25 year old male died 36 hours prior to the funeral home receiving the body. It was discovered outside in the summer. An autopsy was performed after 2 hours of refrigeration. Death was an aneurysm. The family wants an open casket. QUESTION: In addition to arterial fluid you should use:

umbilical

Of the 9 regions of the abdomen, the central region is called:

formaldehyde grey

Discoloration resulting when formaldehyde reacts with hemoglobin in the tissues is called:

basilic vein

Which of the following is associated with the brachial artery?

ulnar artery

A secondary injection point used to clear the hand and fingers is the:

no change in color

Finger ligation on a cadaver will cause:

Injection

Cavity embalming consists of two steps, aspiration and:

2 ppm/15 minutes

The Formaldehyde Standard for short-term exposure to formaldehyde is:

cavity Treatment

Which of the following direct treatments, other than by arterial injection of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera, usually accomplished by aspiration and injection?

discoloration

Any abnormal color appearing in or upon the human body is called:

1, 2, 3

Which of the following should be done prior to cremation? 1-Remove jewelry as directed, 2-Obtain permission and remove pacemaker, 3-Remove prosthetic devices, 4-Remove natural dentition

Inject slowly

A death was from natural causes, but the body was refrigerated for 24 hours prior to embalming. No autopsy is performed. In order to minimize abdominal distension and prevent purge, it is important to:

cadaveric Lividity

Livor mortis is synonymous with:

massage cream

Natural depressions on the face may be destroyed by excessive use of:

1 and 3

Which of the following are methods of evaluating and monitoring fluid distribution? 1-Staining dyes, 2-Abdominal distension, 3-Tissue dryness, 4-Cyanosis

anasarca

Severe generalized edema is known as:

2, 3 and 4

Arterial tube connections can be identified as which of the following types: 1-Quick connect, 2-Threaded, 3-Slip-type, 4-Luer-lok

popliteal

The LEAST likely artery to use on an unautopsied infant is the:

disaster

For which of the following is it essential that hospitals and community services have a plan for the expeditious mobilization and use of their services?

purse string

The suture normally used to close a trocar puncture would be the:

1and 2

Hemorrhagic, purulent vesicles should be drained during the embalming process and treated through surface embalming because they: 1-Interfere with restorative art, 2-Are infectious, 3-Cause atrophy in there remains, 4-Contain antigens

3-4 gallons

A 125 to 175 pound adult would require a minimum injection of:

less humectant

Severely dehydrated remains require:

suture with a baseball stitch

If the lips do not stay closed, DO NOT:

8 hrs

What is the TWA for HCHO?

Use a terminal disinfection.

The deceased had liver cancer. The body is yellow. The right femoral artery has arteriosclerosis. QUESTION: If arterial methods have not been completely successful, what can be done to preserve the trunk?

hydrothorax

Another name for pleural effusion is

edema

Which condition will lead to early decomposition?

jaundice fluids

Low index fluids used to inhibit bilirubin from turning to biliverdin are known as:

co-injection and high index fluid

A 25 year old male died 36 hours prior to the funeral home receiving the body. It was discovered outside in the summer. An autopsy was performed after 2 hours of refrigeration. Death was an aneurysm. The family wants an open casket. QUESTION: The most appropriate arterial solution will include:

decrease drainage in the lower extremities

A thrombus in the iliac veins will:

brain

Creamy, white, and odorless purge from the nostrils is probably from the:

embalming

A process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to retard organic decomposition, and to restore to an acceptable physical appearance is:

for mouth closure

A needle injector is used:

hypertonic solutions

More water can be removed from tissues with embalming fluids that are:

Dry the cavity and return treated viscera

A 25 year old male died 36 hours prior to the funeral home receiving the body. It was discovered outside in the summer. An autopsy was performed after 2 hours of refrigeration. Death was an aneurysm. The family wants an open casket. QUESTION: Which is the appropriate cavity treatment?

arterial tube

What is used to inject embalming fluid?

Incision to sever muscles

What is NOT suggested to reduce rigor mortis?

one point injection

Injection and drainage from one location is called:

emaciation

A factor that indicates the use of a more dilute arterial solution is

the ammonia reacts with formaldehyde

In a case involving death from uremia

postmortem conditions

Rigor mortis and algor mortis are similar in that both are

16

How many ounces of 32 index fluid are needed to make 2 gallons of a 2% fluid dilution?

hypostasis

The setting of blood to dependent parts of the body is called

purse string

Which of the following sutures would best be employed for an abdominal puncture wound?

inferior third of the orbit

In posing the eyes, the eyelids should meet at the

emaciation

Hypodermic tissue building may be preformed as a postembalming treatment for

treatment for eye enucleation

cauterize socket, prostesis; ping pong ball, kapock, mortuary putty and eyecaps.

obtain written permission

What do you need to order to do order to embalm, pror to any excision, dental, removal of pacemaker or other prostheses, or other major restorative procedure

order of decompsistion

1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Fats 4. Hard proteins 5. Bone

formaldehyde.

Index is a measure of fluid strength which
considers the percentage of

plaster of paris.

The hardening agent in hardening compounds is

Paraformaldehyde

Which of the following is a disinfectant and
preservative found in hardening compounds?

0.75 ppm.

The maximum average level of exposure to
formaldehyde over an eight hour time period is

primary dilution.

The dilution of concentrated arterial fluid as
prepared by the embalmer is called the

secondary dilution.

The dilution of arterial solutions by the fluids of
the body is called the

Addison's disease.

A bronze discoloration develops on the body as a
result of

postmortem extravascular discoloration.

The discoloration which is considered to be most
permanent is

cherry red

Carbon monoxide poisoning results in a __ discoloration.

calcium deposits

Arteriosclerosis is a condition caused by the
presence of __ in the arterial tunics.

varices.

Varicose veins is a condition otherwise known as

Embolism

Which of the following is an example of an
intravascular resistance to fluid distribution?

hypostasis.

The settling of the blood to the dependent parts of
the body is known as

causes a stain.

Hemolysis complicates the embalming process
because it

is caused by blood and lymph.

A secondary dilution as related to the embalming
operation

a time lapse between death and embalming

An extrinisic variable factor in embalming is

jugular vein.

Improper positioning of the head on the headrest
may interfere with drainage from the

moisture content of tissues. age. cause of death.

An important factor to be considered in case analysis is

hemolysis.

Postmortem staining is an extravascular change in
the color of tissues due to

postmortem stain.

A postmortem discoloration brought about by the
rupture of the red blood cells and a release of their
contents into the tissues is

discoloration.

An abnormal color appearing in or upon the
human body is

secondary dilution.

The lymph fluids of the body help to promote

arterial system.

Vascular embalming fluids are injected into the

active dyes.

Cosmetic fluids are so called because they contain

they mask the odor of formaldehyde.

Perfuming materials are used in embalming fluids
because

degree of acidity or alkalinity.

pH is a measure of the

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