a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience
learning based on association
something that creats a reaction
reaction to the stimulus
famed for his dog salivation research, which led to the basics of classical conditioning
stimulus produces no reaction
Unconditioned StimulusUS or UCS)
unlearned stimulus; stimulus that has intiatesa an involuntary response
Unconditioned ResponseUR or UCR)
an involuntary response to an unconditioned stimulus
learned stimulus that intitiates a learned behavior from association
learned response from a conditioned stimulus
when one creates a new association
when a conditioned stimulus no longer elicits a conditioned response.
when the extinct behavior returns for a brief period of time.
when the same response occurs to simular stimuli.
When the NS is presented just before the UCS with a brief overlap.
when the CS/NS is presented. Short break time! The UCS is presented
when the CS/NS and the UCS are presented at the same time
when the UCS comes before the CS/NS
Learned Taste Adversion
Garcia Effect; learned acoidance of a particular food; nausea and food association happens once
learning based on consequences of behavior
first behaviorist to work in operant conditioning; cat in cage milk experiment. Result: instrumental learning and Law of Effect
consequences are instrumental in shaping future behaviors
Law of Effect
if a consequence of a behavior is postive, the behavior will most likely happen again. If a consequence of a behavior is negative, the behavior is less likely to happen again.
coined term, operant conditioning; postive and negative reinforcement and postive punshiment and Omitting training; did not believe cognitive activity is involved in learning
the addition of something good
the omission of something bad
the addition of something bad
the omission of something good
things that we naturally value such as food, water, and sex.
things that we learn to value such as money and grades
reinforcers that can be traded for virtually anything; major example is MONEY
apart of punshment; when one terminates an aversive stimulus; stop something that bothers you (aversive is another word for punishment)
enables one to avoid an aversive stimulus all together (aversive is another word for punshiment)
apart of reinforcement learning; reinforcing steps to reach a single desired behavior; example: learning to drive one must first learn how to start the car, then signal, then turn, then etc. All of these steps build up the overall desire: know how to drive.
apart of reinforcement learning; reinforcing separate behaviors into a more complex activity; all behaviors or "steps: are principles to the overall action: example: Shamoo flips, kisses, waves, and jumps through hoops to create an overall show. The overall action is performing a show. The tricks are the components that make up the overall action.
prefered activities can be used to reinforce a not prefered activity. Example: Peter loves eating apples, but hates playing the piano. To get Peter to play the piano, his mother reinforces playing the piano by giving him an apple to eat. Eating the apple is the prefered activity as playing the piano is the not preferred activity.
the passive resignation for the inability to avoid aversive events; due to the lack of ability to control your fate in previous experiences, you learn to act helpless; one's prior experiences have caused that person to view himself or herself as unable to control aspects of the future that are controllable.
electrode dogs: dogs are zapped in cage. Some dogs were able to find a way out of the cage and some dogs just gave up after a number of failings. Result: Learned Helplessness
when you are first teaching a new behavior, rewarding the behavior each time is best; reward the behavior everytime it's performed.
Once the behavior is learned through continuous learning, higher response rates can be obtained when using partial reinforcement; behavior will be more resistance to extinction if the animal has not been reinforced continuously; Example: FI, FR, VI, VR
Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)
reinforcement after a set of responses; example: dog sits every four times, he gets a treat
Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)
there are a number of responses before reinforcement changes; Example: Dog sits 3 times. Give him treat. Dog sits 5 more times. GIve him treat. Dog sits 2 times. Give him Treat.
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)
a certain amount of time passes before reinforcement occurs; Example: give dog a treat every five minutes of staying
Variable Interval Schedule (VI)
reinforcement schedule varies in amount of time: Example: Dog stays for 5 mins. Treat. Dogs stays for 10 mins. Treat. Dog stays for 8 mins. Treat.
the idea that any animal can be taught any response
the tendancy to give up rewards to pursue typical behavior; something you can't pursue; example: Dog will give up treats if you try to teach it to cartwheel because it is physically incapable of performing a cartwheel.
throught processing is involved in learning
Albert Banderra; Social Learning (monkey see monkey do); happens only between same species
monkey see monkey do; observation and imitation
Tolman; learning that remains hiddem until needed; example: you're a new student and your mom drives you to DHS everyday. One day you have to drive there yourself and you were not given any directions. Thankfully, you remember the route your mom took everyday. You learned the route without being directly taught to.
picturing the learned behavior in your head
Understanding concepts and not just doin behavior for a reward
Wolfgang Koehler; when one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem; hanging bananas and monkeys. all were frustrated, then one monkey figured to get bananas, must pile boxes to reach them.