Art History 202 - Quiz #1

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Quiz #1

Baptistery

in Christian architecture, the building used for baptism, usually situated next to a church

Contrapposto

a pose to describe a human figure standing with its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off axis

Catacombs

an underground cemetery, esp. one consisting of tunnels and rooms with recesses dug out for coffins and tombs.

Orant

In Early Christian art, a figure with both arms raised in the ancient gesture of prayer

Basilica

baths and public places were taken over as Christian churches after the Edict of Milan. The entrance was now placed on the west opposite the altar instead of the long side. These structures had a nave, apse, side aisles and sometimes a narthex and an ambulatory

Apse

A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a building, commonly found at the east end of a church

Nave

The long central part of a church, extending from the entrance to the altar, with aisles along the sides.

Transept

the part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave forming a "T" shape; transepts resemble arms thus exaggerating the cruciform shape

Narthex

the vestibule, or lobby, of a church

Martyrium

in Christian architecture, a church, chapel, or shrine built over the grave of a martyr or the site of a great miracle

Sarcophagus

A stone coffin, often inscribed or ornamented with sculpture.

Atrium

the central area in a building

Clerestory

The topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space (the nave).

Typology

The study of types of writing that have common traits. Typology in Scripture study involves reading the Old Testament in light of Christ crucified and risen.

Tessera

the small piece of stone, glass, or other object that is pieced together with many others to create a mosaic

Ambulatory

the passage (walkway) around the apse in a basilican church or around the central space in a central-plan church

Putto

A plump, naked little boy, often winged. In classical art, called a cupid; in Christian art, a cherub.

Diptych

A two-paneled painting or altarpiece; also, an ancient Roman, Early Christian, or Byzantine hinged writing tablet, often of ivory and carved on the external sides.

Theotokos

a greek term for Mary meaning "God bearer" or "birth mother of God" that was first used by the council of Ephesus in AD 431

Eucharist

From the Greek for "thanksgiving"; also called the Mass or Lord's Supper. It is the principal sacramental celebration of the Church, established by Jesus at the Last Supper, in which the mystery of salvation through participation in the sacrificial Death and glorious Resurrection of Christ is renewed and accomplished. The term applies to the species consecrated during the Mass.

Cathedral

the principal Christian church in a diocese, built in the bishop's administrative center and housing his throne (diocesan)

Pendentive

the concave triangular section of a vault that forms the transition between a square or polygonal space and the circular base of a dome

Squinch

An architectural device used as a transition from a square to a polygonal or circular base for a dome. It may be composed of lintels, corbels, or arches.

Choir

The area of the church between a transept and main apse. it is the area where the service is sung and clergy may stand, and the main or high altar is located.

Encaustic

A painting technique in which pigment is mixed with wax and applied to the surface while hot.

Paten

a large shallow bowl or plate for the bread used in the Eucharist

Chalice

goblet; consecrated cup
In a small room adjoining the cathedral, many ornately decorated chalices made by the most famous
European goldsmiths were on display.

Iconoclasm

religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; "breaking of the images"; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons

Iconoclast

attacker of traditional or cherished beliefs, institutions, ideas

Iconophile

Greek for "lover of icons" this term refers to those who defend and promote the proper use of icons in Christian worship

Mandorla

An almond-shaped nimbus surrounding the figure of Christ or other sacred figure.

Triptych

art consisting of a painting or carving (especially an altarpiece) on three panels (usually hinged together)

Enamel

a colored glassy compound (opaque or partially opaque) that is fused to the surface of metal or glass or pottery for decoration or protection

Anastasis

the resurrected Jesus descends into limbo, or hell, to free deserving predecessors, among them Adam, Eve, David, and Moses.

Pantokrator

Refers to specific image of Christ as "ruler over all"-head and shoulders only, holding book, gesture of authority/blessing, beard and long hair came later.

Templon

The columnar screen separating the sanctuary from the main body of a Byzantine church.

The Four Evangelists/Symbols

Man-Matthew Luke-Ox
Mark-Lion John-Eagle

Formal Analysis

Name of artist, name of work, it's date, its location (first found), material, why it is important, and two points of significance

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