Bill of Rights
Popular term for the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The amendments secure key rights for individuals and reserve to the states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the Constitution
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general
funding at par
Payment of debts, such as government bonds, at face value. 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed that the federal government pay its Revolutionary war debts in full in order to bolster the nation's credit
Transfer of debt from one party to another. In order to strengthen the union, the federal government assumed states' Revolutionary War debts in 1790, thereby tying the interest of wealthy lenders with those of the national government
Tax levied on imports. Traditionally, manufacturers support tariffs as protective and revenue-raising measures, while agricultural interest, dependent on world markets, oppose high tariffs
Tax on goods produced domestically. Excise taxes, particularly the 1791 tax on whiskey, were a highly controversial component of Alexander Hamilton's financial program
Bank of the United States
Chartered by Congress as part of Alexander Hamilton's financial program, the bank printed paper money and served as a depository for Treasury funds. It drew opposition from Jeffersonian Republicans, who argued that the bank was unconstitutional
Popular uprising of whiskey distillers in southwestern Pennsylvania in opposition to an excise tax on whiskey. In a show of strength and resolve by the new central government, Washington put down the rebellion with militia drawn from several states
Reign of Terror
Ten-month period of brutal repression when some 40,000 individuals were executed as enemies of the French Revolution. While many Jeffersonians maintained their faith in the French Republic, Federalists withdrew their already lukewarm support once the Reign of Terror commenced
Issued by George Washington, it proclaimed America's formal neutrality in the escalating conflict between England and France, a statement that enraged pro-French Jeffersonians
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Decisive battle between the Miami confederacy and the U.S. Army. British forces refused to shelter the routed Indians, forcing the latter to attain a peace settlement with the United States
Treaty of Greenville
Under the terms of the treaty, the Miami Confederacy agreed to cede territory in the Old Northwest to the United States in exchange for cash payment, hunting rights, and formal recognition of their sovereign status
Negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay in an effort to avoid war with Britain, the treaty included a British promise to evacuate outposts on U.S. soil and pay damages for seized American vessels, in exchange for which Jay bound the United States to repay pre-Revolutionary war debts and to abide by Britain's restrictive trading policies toward France
Signed with Spain which, fearing an Anglo-American alliance, granted Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and the disputed territory of Florida
George Washington's address at the end of his presidency, warning against "permanent alliances" with other nations. Washington did not oppose all alliances, but believed that the young, fledgling nation should forge alliances only on temporary basis, in extraordinary circumstances
Diplomatic conflict between France and the United States when American envoys to France were asked to pay a hefty bribe for the privileges of meeting with the French foreign minister. Many in the u.S. called for war against France, while American sailors and privateers waged an undeclared war against French merchants in the Caribbean
Convention of 1800
Agreement to formally dissolve the United States' treaty with France, originally signed during the Revolutionary War. The difficulties posed by America's peacetime alliance with France contributed to American's' longstanding opposition to entangling alliances with foreign powers
Acts passed by a federal congress raising the residency requirement for citizenship to fourteen years and granting the president the power to deport dangerous foreigners in times of peace
Enacted by the Federalist Congress in an effort to clamp down on Jeffersonian opposition, the law made anyone convicted of defaming government officials or interfering with government policies liable to imprisonment and a heavy fine. The act drew heavy criticism from Republicans, who let the act expire in 1801
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Statements secretly drafted by Jefferson and Madison for the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia. Argued that states were the final arbiters of whether the federal government overstepped its boundaries and could therefore nullify, or refuse to accept, national legislation they deemed unconstitutional
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
King of France (r.1774-1792 CE). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Sent by France to the US to enlist American aid in the French revolution with or without the Washington administration's consent. He openly commissioned American privateers to harass British shipping and enlisted Americans in intrigues against the Spanish outpost of New Orleans. He also opened France's Caribbean colonies to American shipping, providing American shippers a choice between French free trade and British mercantilism.
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace
"Mad Anthony" Wayne
The leader of the army that crushed the Indians of the Northwest Territory in 1794., American general during the American Revolution (1745-1796)
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
French foreign minister; infamous because of his requested bribe during the XYZ affair, but instrumental in settling the details of the Louisiana Purchase
Revolution of 1800
Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency. The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America's political system.
A system, prevalent during the Gilded Age, in which political parties granted jobs and favors to party regulars who delivered votes on election day. Patronage was both an essential wellspring of support for both parties and a source of conflict within the Republican party.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the departing Federalist Congress, it created sixteen new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary
Federal justices appointed by John Adams during the last days of his presidency. Their positions were revoked when the newly elected Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act.
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established the principle of "judicial review"- the idea that the Supreme Court had the final authority to determine constitutionally
Four-year conflict between the American Navy and the North-African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Mediterranean. Jefferson, a staunch noninterventionist, reluctantly deployed American forces, eventually securing a peace treaty with Tripoli
War incited by a lave uprising in French-controlled Saint Dominigue, resulting in the creation of the first independent black republic in the Americas
Acquisition of Louisiana territory from France. The purchase more than doubled the territory of the United States, opening vast tracts for settlement
Corps of Discovery
Team of adventurers, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore Louisiana Territory and find a water route to the Pacific. Louis and Clark brought back detailed accounts of the West's flora, fauna, and native populations, and their voyage demonstrated the viability of overland travel to the West
Orders in Council
Edicts issued by the British Crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping. The French responded by ordering the seizure of all vessels entering British ports, thereby cutting off American merchants from trade with both parties.
Act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the British navy against American seamen in times of war against France, 1793-1815. Impressment was a continual source of conflict between Britain and the United States in the early national period.
Conflict between Britain and the United States that precipitated the 1807 embargo. The conflict developed when a British ship, in search of deserters, fired on the American Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia
Enacted in response to British and French mistreatment of American merchants, the Act banned the export of all goods from the United States to any foreign port. The embargo placed great strains on the American economy while only marginally affecting its European targets, and was therefore repealed in 1809
Passed alongside the repeal of the Embargo Act, it reopened trade with al but the two belligerent nations, Britain and France. The Act continued Jefferson's policy of economic coercion, still with little effect
Macon's Bill No. 2
Aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Britain and France, he act stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restrictions, the United States would reinstate thee embargo against the nonrepealing nation. When Napoleon offered to life his restrictions on British ports, the United States was forced to declare an embargo on Britain, thereby pushing the two nations closer toward war.
Democratic-Republican Congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain. Largely drawn from the South and West, the war hawks resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier
Battle of Tippecanoe
Resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, "the Prophet" at the hands William Henry Harrison in the Indiana wilderness. After the battle, the Prophet's brother, Tecumseh, forged an alliance with the British against the United States
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
One of Jefferson's house slaves at Monticello. Jefferson fathered at least one of her children, but he never claimed them. He freed 2 of her children, but never Sally.
He was Jefferson's secretary. Jefferson and Gallatin believed that to pay the interest on debt, there would have to be taxes. Taxes would suck money from industrious farmers and put it in the hands of wealthy creditors.
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.
general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba
Robert R. Livingston
along with James Monroe, negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
United States explorer and soldier who lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River (1774-1809)
explorer sent by President Jefferson to explore land west of the Mississippi River that created accurate maps of the region
She accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition during its journey to the Pacific Ocean between 1804 and 1806. She made important contributions to the success of the Corps of Discovery: she helped guide the expedition through unfamiliar territory and she helped translate when the expedition encountered Indian tribes.
Jefferson's Vice President; killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel
He was discontented with the Northern states' willingness to strangle the western economy by closing the Mississippi. He conspired with Spain to separate Kentucky from the Union in return for money. His conspiracy collapsed in 1788 when Spain reopened the Mississippi.
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
Tenskwatawa "the Prophet"
Told Indians to be scared of white culture's corruption. Caused indian religious revival, and united the Indians.; dies at the Battle of Tippecanoe. His brother was Tecumseh, the chief of Shawnees. United all tribes of Mississippi Valley in Tecumseh Confederacy to protect what was left of indian lands.
War of 1812
Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers.
Battle of New Orleans
Resounding victory of American forces against the British, restoring American confidence and fueling an outpouring of nationalism. Final battle of the War of 1812
Congress of Vienna
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of napoleonic France
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war
Convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House
Signed by Britain and the United States, it established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff in American history, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812
Henry Clay's three-pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a federally funded transportation network
Era of Good Feelings
Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank
panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy
Land Act of 1820
Fueled the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land. Also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating one of the causes of the Panic of 1819
Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners vehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between North and South
Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched
Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36 30'
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank
Legal doctrine which holds that the federal government can use powers not specifically granted or prohibited in the Constitution to carry out its constitutionally mandated responsibilities
Cohens v. Virginia
Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government
Gibbons v. Ogden
Suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce
Fletcher v. Peck
Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments
Signed by Britain and the United States, the pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for ten years
Florida Purchase Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)
Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas
Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets
Fixed the line of 54 40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America
British general known for his brilliant defensive tactics, captured Detroit in the War of 1812. Killed by American sharpshooters at the Battle of Queenston Heights.
Oliver Hazard Perry
United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812
naval officer who forced the invading British army near Plattsburgh to retreat on September 11, 1814; He saved the upper New York from conquest.
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
British foreign secretary; asked the American minister in London if the United States would band together with the British in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory, and specifically warning the European dictators to keep their harsh hands off the Latin American republics.
Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adams' favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824
Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first widely employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson. The practice was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging two-party system
Tariff of Abominations
Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports, Southerners vehemently opposed the Tariff, arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufacturers
Showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833
compromise Tariff of 1833
Passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis, it provided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years, to 1816 levels
Passed by Congress alongside the Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties
Indian Removal Act
Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri, Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles
Trail of Tears
Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduous journey
Black Hawk War
Series of clashes in Illinois and Wisconsin between American forces and Indian chief Black Hawk of the Sauk and Fo tribes, who unsuccessfully tried to reclaim territory lost under the 1830 Indian Removal Act
Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers
First founded in New York, it gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential Masonic order, a secret society, Anti-Masons opposed Andrew Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants
Popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the United States in 1833
U.S. Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchased with "hard", or metallic, currency. Issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the West
panic of 1837
Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices, and Andrew Jackson's efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands and transportation improvements. In response, Presiden Martin Van Buren proposed the "Divorce Bill", which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply
Fortress in Texas where four hundred American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna in 1836. "Remember the Alamo" became a battle cry in support of Texan independence
Texas outpost where American volunteers, having laid down their arms and surrendered, were massacred by Mexican forces in 1836. The incident, along with the slaughter at the Alamo, fueled American support for Texan independence
Battle of San Jacinto
Resulted in the capture of Mexican dictator Santa Anna, who was forced to withdraw his troops from Texas and recognize the Rio Grande as Texas's Southwestern border
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
The leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, he led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states
Martin Van Buren
He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Ralph Waldo Emerson's popular lecture-essay that reflected the spirit of individualism pervasive in American popular culture during the 1830s and 1840s
The principal marketplace of the Northwest fur trade, which peaked in the 1820s and 1830s. Each summer, traders set up camps in the Rocky Mountains to exchange manufactured goods for beaver pelts
Historians' term for the spoliation of western natural resources through excessive hunting, logging, mining, and grazing
Ancient Order of Hibernians
Irish semi-secret society that served as a benevolent organization for downtrodden Irish immigrants in the United States
Secret organization of Irish miners that campaigned, at times violently, against poor working conditions in the Pennsylvania mines
Powerful New York political machine that primarily drew support from the city's immigrants, who depended on Tammany Hall patronage, particularly social services
Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics
Maria Monk's sensational expose of alleged horrors in Catholic convents. Its popularity reflected nativist fears of Catholic influence
Shift toward mass production and mechanization that included the creation of the modern factory system
Eli Whitney's invention that sped up the process of harvesting cotton. The gin made cotton cultivation more profitable, revitalizing the southern economy and increasing the importance of slavery in the South
Federal government bureau that reviews patent applications. A patent is a legal recognition of a new invention, granting exclusive rights to the inventor for a period of years
Legal principle that facilitates capital investment by offering protection for individual investors, who, in cases of legal claims or bankruptcy, cannot be held responsible for more than the value of their individual shares
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Massachusetts Supreme Court decision that strengthened the labor movement by upholding the legality of unions
Young women employed in the growing factories of the early nineteenth century, they labored long hours in difficult conditions, living in socially new conditions away from farms and families
cult of domesticity
Pervasive nineteenth-century cultural creed that venerated the domestic role of women. It gave married women greater authority to shape home life but limited opportunities outside the domestic sphere
Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots. The introduction of the reaper in the 1830s fueled the establishment of large-scale commercial agriculture in the Midwest
Privately funded, toll-based public road constructed in the early nineteenth century to facilitate commerce
New York state canal that linked Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It dramatically lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the Old Northwest
Small, swift vessels that gave American shippers an advantage in the carrying trade. Clipper ships were made largely obsolete by the advent of sturdier, roomier iron steamers on the eve of the Civil War
Short-lived, speedy mail service between Missouri and California that relied on light-weight riders galloping between closely placed outposts
Term referring to a series of nineteenth-century transportation innovations-turnpikes, steamboats, canals, and railroads- that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy
Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century transformation from a disaggregated, subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine.
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
United States inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers (including Isaac M. Singer) (1819-1867)
made improvements on Howe's sewing machine, as it was soon being used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear.
Samuel F. B. Morse
Invented the telegraph which allowed faster communication over longer distances. He also developed Morse code
United States industrialist who manufactured plows suitable for working the prairie soil (1804-1886)
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal (1769-1828)
American businessman who laid the first telegraph wire across the Atlantic. This cut down the time it took for a message to be sent from Europe to American and vice-versa.
John Jacob Astor
Created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company. He bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who became known as montain men. Astoria was named after him.