Biology Notes Chapter 1

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Various facts you may need to know for your high school biology midterm

6 Characteristics of living things

Made of cells, organisms need to metabolize energy, respond to stimuli, reproduce, grow and develop, and evolve over time

3 Domains of life

Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

6 Kingdoms of life

Archaea, Bacteria, Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals

DNA

The genetic code used by all living things on Earth and some nonliving things such as viruses. It is made up of nitrogenous base pairs attached to a sugar and a phosphate group. The sugar and the phosphate group make up the backbone. The four nitrogenous bases are Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). Adenine always pairs with Thymine while Guanine always pairs with Cytosine. It is usually in the shape of a double helix. A gene is a single trait of an organism

Response to stimuli

One of the six characteristics of life, stimuli are physical or chemical changes in the internal or external environment.

Diversity

The variety of life, there are over 1.5 million identified species of organisms on the Earth

Cell

The smallest unit that can perform all of life's processes and functions.

Multicellular

An organism made up of more than one cell.

Unicellular

An organism made up of one cell

Organs

Structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system.

Organ System

Groups of specialized parts that carry out a certain function in the organism.

Tissue

Groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function

Organelles

Tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive

Biological Molecule

The chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions.

Atoms

The simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of a certain element.

Homeostasis

Maintaining a stable internal environment

Metabolism

The sum of all the chemical reactions that take and transform energy and materials from the environment.

Growth and Development

The growth of living things as a result of the enlargement and division of existing cells. Development is the process by which an organism becomes an adult.

Reproduction

The production of new organisms similar to the parent that created them. It is not immediately necessary to the survival of the individual organism but it is necessary to the continuation of the species.

Evolution

This is change over time over many generations of a species.

Scientific Method

An organized approach towards learning how the natural world works.

Observations

The act of perceiving a natural occurrence and forming a question off of it

Hypothesis

A proposed explanation for a proposed question.

Prediction

A statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis is true

Experiment

Procedure to test a hypothesis and its predictions

Conclusion

One can be drawn after the data from an experiment is analyzed.

Theory

A set of related hypotheses that is confirmed to be true many times, that can explain a great amount of data.

Control Group

A normal standard against which the experimenter can compare against the experimental group

Experimental Group

A group that is only different from the control group by one factor, this factor is the independent or manipulated variable.

Independent Variable

Also known as the manipulated variable. This is manipulated to gather data

Dependent Variable

What is being used to measure the change in the independent variable

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