Disorders of the Eye

174 terms by saraneato 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Graves Disease

A condition of unknown origin that involves the throid gland and causes the soft tissues surrounding the globe to swell. (proptosis)

Exo Deviation

The outward deviation of eye

Tropia

A condition in which misalignment of the eyes is present even when the eyes are uncovered (cover uncover test)

Exophoria

The outward deviation of the eye that is present only one when eye is covered

Exotropia

The outward deviation of the eye in which the eyes are misaligned even when uncovered

Esotropia

The inward deviation of the eye where the eyes are misaligned even when uncovered

Esophoria

The inward deviation of the eye that is present only when one is covered

Eso Deviation

The inward deviation of eye

Syndrome

A set of signs or symptoms that is characteristic of a specific condition or disease

Strabismus

A misalignment of the eyes that may cause vision to be disturbed; occurs when the extraocular muscles do not work in a coordinated manner

Congenital

Refers to any disease process or effect that is present from birth

Endophthalmitis

A serious ocular bacterial infection with inflammation of the vitreous and adjacent tissues

Pseudophakia

the use of an intraocular lens to correct the vision of an aphakic patient

Aphakic Correction

The use of a contact lens, eyeglasses, or an intraocular lens for more normal vision in an aphakic patient

Aphakia

Absence of the lens, usually because of cataract extraction

Cataract

And opacified or clouded lens

Presbyopia

The progressive loss of accommodative ability of the lens, due to the natural processes of aging

Anisocoria

A condition in which the pupils are of unequal size

Rubeosis Iridis

A condition in which the iris develops a reddish color due to neovascularization

Neovascularization

The abnormal growth of new blood vessels

Iritis

Inflammation of the iris

Congenital Glaucoma

A rare disease that occurs in infants; due to a malformation of the anterior chamber angle

Secondary Glaucoma

Glaucoma that occurs secondary to another primary disease

Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma

A form of glaucoma in which the natural age-related increase in the size of the lens blocks the flow of aqueous through the pupil, gradually bowing the iris forward until it's outer edge blocks the aqueous outflow channels in the anterior chamber angle

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

A form of glaucoma in which the pressure inside the eye is elevated because of increased resistance to aqueous drainage in the outflow channels; accounts for 60% to 90% of all adult glaucomas

Visual Field

The height and breadth of space seen by the eye when the gaze is fixated straight ahead

Intraocular Pressure

Fluid pressure within the eye

Glaucoma

An eye disease in which the intraocular pressure is high enough to cause damage to the optic nerve, resulting in visual loss; caused by impaired drainage of the aqueous fluid out of the eye

Hyphema

The pooling of blood in the anterior chamber as a result of trauma or certain diseases

Episcleritis

Inflammation of the surface layer of the sclera

Scleritis

Inflammation of the sclera

Keratoconus

A rare degenerative corneal disease in which the center of the cornea thins and assumes the shape of a cone, seriously affecting vision

Arcus Senilis

A common degenerative change in which the outer edge of the cornea gradually becomes opaque, generally in both eyes; affects people over the age of 50

Dendritic

Branch-shaped, such as the corneal ulcers seen after infection with the herpes simplex virus

Herpes Simplex Virus

In ophthalmology, a type of virus that infects the cornea, producing branch-like ulcers (dendritic keratitis)

Hypopyon

An accumulation of puss in the anterior chamber

Laceration

A cut

Abrasion

A scratch

Keratitis

Inflammation of the cornea

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

Dry eye

Dacryocystitis

Inflammation of the lacrimal sac; usually caused by a blockage or obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct

Nevi

Literally, freckles; common tumors involving the bulbar conjunctiva and appear as yellowish-pink or brown areas on the conjunctiva or skin

Pterygium

A wedge-shaped growth on the bulbar conjunctiva

Pinguecula

A small, benign, yellow-white mass of degenerated tissue beneath the bulbar conjunctiva, just nasal or temporal to the limbus

Ophthalmia Neonatorum

Conjunctivitis in the newborn

Topical Application

The delivery system by which a drug is applied directly to the surface of the eye or surrounding skin

Mucopurulent Discharge

A thick fluid containing mucus and puss; symptomatic of bacterial infection

Basal cell Carcinoma

The most common malignant lid tumor; has a characteristic appearance of a pit surrounded by raised "pearly" edges

Lagophthalmos

A condition in which the globe is not completely covered when the lids are closed; may be caused by facial-nerve paralysis or by an enlarged or protruding eye

Oculomotor Nerve

The third cranial nerve, which supplies the impulses that activate the superior, medial, and inferior rectus muscles, the inferior oblique muscle, and the orbicularis oculi muscle

Retinal Detachment

The separation of the sensory layer from the pigment layer of the retina

Cryopexy

Freezing by surgical means

Granuloma

A firm collection of a specific kind of inflammatory cells

Incision

A cut produced by a sharp instrument

Degenerative

Refers to any process in which the structure or function of body tissues gradually deteriorates

Genetic

A trait that is inherited from either or both parents

Neoplasm

A new growth of different or abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or wart

Benign

Any tumor that is not dangerous to the well-being of the individual

Malignant

Any tumor that is cancerous and has the potential of spreading to other parts of the body

Metastasize

The process by which cancerous cells move to other parts of the body and produce new tumors

Trauma

A sudden wound or injury to the body, often from outside the body

Toxin

A poison

Diagnosis

Determination of a medical condition

Orbital Cellulitis

A diffuse infection of tissues in the orbit, causing grossly swollen eyelids and red eye, sometimes without proptosis

Virus

A microorganism smaller than the smallest bacterium that has no cellular structure and can cause infectious disease

Fungus

A multicelled microorganism that differs from a bacterium in that it has a more complex structure; includes yeast and molds. Some can live inside the body and cause infection

Bacteria

Single celled microorganisms, widely dispersed in nature; some of these are capable of causing disease in humans

Microorganism

An extremely small life form invisible to the unaided eye (also called Microbe)

Injury

Damage to or destruction of cells that compose a tissue, organ, or system

Etiology

Literally; the study of the cause of the disease;
informally; the causes themselves

Pathologic

Abnormal

Sinuses

A bony cavern of the skull that contain air and connect with the nasal passages

Blowout Fracture

An injury due to blunt trauma, in which were orbital bones are broken

Chronic

A condition that has persisted for sometime

Acute

A condition that flares up suddenly and persist for only a short time

Inflammation

A local protective tissue response to infection, in which specialized cells move to the affected area to destroy the injurious agent, while other cells release fluid to dilute any toxic substances produced by the infectious agent and wall off both the offender and the damaged tissue

Infection

The invasion and multiplication of harmful microorganisms in the body tissues: a local bacterial or fungal infection begins in the tissues immediately surrounding the microorganisms point of entry; if unchecked, the infection may spread to surrounding tissues; thereby becoming diffuse

Immune Reaction

The body's response to infection, in which antibodies are manufactured to neutralize the infecting microorganisms and perhaps prevent recurrence of the infection

Occlusion

Blockage

Ischemia

A condition in which the supply of blood to a part of the body is severely reduced

Antibodies

The type of chemical that the body manufactures to neutralize an infecting organism

Hypoxia

A loss of oxygen

Metabolism

The physical and chemical processes by which the body converts food into energy and new body tissues

Diabetes Mellitus

A condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, the hormone required for the metabolism of sugar

Insulin

A hormone the body uses to metabolize sugar

Photocoagulation

Surgical welding with laser light beams

Pneumatoretinopexy

A surgical procedure for correcting retinal detachment by injecting gas into the eye

Optic Neuritis

Inflammation of the optic nerve; can produce a sudden but reversible loss of sight

Papilledema

A swelling of the optic disc with engorged blood vessels: caused by increased fluid pressure within the skull

Retinitis Pigmentosa

A hereditary, progressive retinal degeneration that may lead to blindness

Age Related Macular Degeneration

A disease in which sensory cells of the macula degenerates, resulting in the loss of central vision

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

A virus that causes a deficiency of the immune system, making the patient susceptible to a variety of infections of various tissues, including the retina

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

A viral infection characterized by a compromised immune system

Diabetic Retinopathy

A progression of pathologic changes in the retina; produced by long-standing diabetes mellitus

Scleral Buckle

A surgical procedure for correcting a retinal detachment that involves placing a block of silicone or other material in the eye to indent the wall

Abscess

A localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

Symptom

A change in vision, pain, or other subjective effect that indicates a disease process

Chemical Trauma

An injury caused by a chemical, such as an acid or an alkali

Thermal Trauma

An injury that results in the burning or freezing of tissues

Nystagmus

The eyes continually shift in a rhythmic side to side or up and down motion and then snap back to normal position

Strabismic Amblyopia

The tendency of a child's brain to suppress the images from the deviating eye

Stereopsis

The ability to perceive depth visually in three dimensions

Diplopia

Double vision

Palsy

Paralysis

Phoria

The tendency of the eyes to deviate; usually prevented by the brains effort to fuse the two images (cross cover test)

Edema

Swelling caused a large amount of fluid in a part of the body

Lesion

Abnormal tissue or a break in a normal tissue

Hemorrhage

Accumulation of blood from a broken blood vessel

10 mechanisms of disease & injury

Infectious
Inflammatory
Allergic
Ischemic
Metabolic
Congenital
Developmental
Degenerative
Neoplastic
Traumatic

Infectious Process

Invasion & multiplication of foreign microorganisms within tissue.
Create competition for nutrients & release toxic substances.

Inflammatory Process

Protective tissue response to infection or injury. Produces pain, redness, heat, & swelling.
Can result in loss of function in affected organ.
Suffix: "itis"

Allergic Process

Immune reaction to foreign substances, infection.
Symptoms: Runny nose, watery eyes, skin rash, difficulty breathing, death.

Immune Reaction

a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen

Allergic reaction

occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader

Ischemic Process

Severe reduction of blood supply caused by occluded or broken blood vessels.
Causes hypoxia.

Ischemia

Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction.

Hypoxia

Loss of oxygen to cells

Metabolic Process

Enzymes & hormones are not produced in the proper quantity.
i.e. hyperthyroidism, Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus

Congenital Process

Disease, malfunction, or malformation present at birth.

Developmental Process

Faulty development of organs/tissues can result in their inability to function properly.

Degenerative Process

Breakdown of tissue due to aging, genetics, infection, or inflammation.

Neoplastic Process

Growths such as tumors & warts.
May be benign or malignant.
May metastasize.

Neoplasm

an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose

Exophthalmos
Proptosis

Protrusion of the eyeball from the socket

Unilateral proptosis

Protrusion of one eyeball from socket.
May indicate tumor.

Edema

swelling from large amounts of fluid
may result in proptosis

Orbital cellulitis

Diffuse infection of the tissues of the orbit.
Can cause swelling & redness.
Symptoms incl decreased vision, ocular pain made worse by eye movement.
Can be deadly due to close proximity w brain.

blowout fracture

breakage of floor or walls of orbit due to blunt force.
globe may fall into fracture and requires reconstruction of orbit as well as repair to injured globe.

comitant strabismus

deviation is the same in all fields of gaze.
due to imbalanced muscle tension.
may be congenital.

non-comitant
incomitant

misalignment of eyes is different at different gaze directions.

paralytic strabismus

strabismus due to nerve paralysis.

restrictive strabismus

strabismus due to loss of muscle elasticity from scarring of long-term inflammation.
i.e. Grave's disease

exo deviation

outward deviation

eso deviation

inward deviation

tropia

eye movement or shifting that is readily observable

phoria

deviation of eye that can only be elicited by covering one eye so the brain can no longer fuse the images.

exotropia

outward deviation that is readily observable

esophoria

inward deviation that is only visible on occasion

stereopsis

three-dimensional vision

strabismis amblyopia

suppressed vision of the misaligned eye.
Most common in children.
can be corrected after surgery w a patch or blurring drops in dominant ey to force amblyopic eye to work.

Nystagmus

Eyes drift off intended target then jerk back into position.
Indicates problem w brain function, not muscles.

external hordeolum
stye

Bacterial infection of eyelash follicles.
Treated w hot moist packs & antibiotic drops.
May need to be drained.

internal hordeolum

Bacterial infection of meibomian gland.
Located on inner eyelid.

chalazion

nontender, solid lump that may remain after a meibomian infection.

blepharitis

Chronic, low-grade infection.
Red & inflamed lid margins w crust along lashes.
Treated w lid cleaning, topical antibiotics, oral antibiotics.
Are recurring & predisposes one to styes & chalazions.

Ptosis

Drooping of upper eyelid.
Due to partial paralysis of oculomotor nerve when congenital
Or due to weekness of levator palpebrae or it's tendon as a result of disease or trauma.

Ectropion

turning of eyelid outward

Entropion

Lid margin turns inward of causing trichiasis.
caused by over activitity of orbicularis oculi muscle.

Trichiasis

Eyelashes rub against the globe & can tear cornea.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set