Combo with Ch 2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye and 7 others

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Floaters

Particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous fluid and cast shadows on the retina

Vitreous

The clear jelly-like substance that fills the space behind the lens (also called the vitreous body)

Stye

A red, sore lump nearly outer edge of the eyelid caused by an inflamed lash follicle (also called external hordeolum)

Blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelids characterized by redness, swelling, and crusted lid margins

Binocular vision

the ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image

Corneal Epithelium

The outermost Layer of the cornea providing defense against infection and injury. This layer also contains nerve endings but does not contain blood vessels.

Chalazion

Chronic nontender inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid

Inferior Oblique

Rolls eye up and out (laterally)

Optic Radiation

The nerve cels that transmit visual information from the lateral geniculate body to the visual cortex

Optic Disc

Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light.

Orbit

the bony cavity in the skull containing the globe, extra-ocular muscles, blood vessels, and nerves. All of which are cushioned by layers of fat.

Cataract

Clouding of the natural lens of the eye. (opacified)

Opacification

The process of the lens becoming cloudy or opaque. Happens to people over 65.

Optic nerve

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

Physiologic blind spot

sightless "hole" in the normal visual field corresponding to the optic disc where there are no photoreceptors

Tear Film

Three layered-coating that covers the front surface of the globe:
Outer Lipid Layer- Fatty layer secreted by meibomian glands which prevents evaporation of underlying aqueous humor
Middle Aqueous Layer- Secreted by lacrimal glands, mostly aqueous,provides Oxygen and nutrients
Inner Mucous Layer- lies over surface of conjunctiva and cornea; secreted by goblet cells of conjunctiva and is important in stability of tear film, and the spread of tear film over cornea

Conjunctivitis

inflammation (swelling of the blood vessels) of the conjuctiva; caused by irritation, allergy, or bacterial infection. ( pink eye),

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

Rupture of a conjunctival blood vessel that allows blood to flow under the tissue and produces a bright-red flat area on the conjunctiva

Retina

the light-sensitive inner lining of the back of the eyeball; contains receptor cells (rods/cones)

Ectropion

The turning out (eversion) of the lower eyelid caused by muscle weakness.

Cones

Cone-shaped visual receptor cells; located in retina; works best in bright light; responsible for viewing color; greatest density in the fovea

Ptosis

Drooping of and inability to raise the upper eyelid; caused be the levator muscle's inability to function

Anterior Chamber

Area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains aqueous humor.

Sphincter muscle

The muscle that encircles the pupil and makes the pupil smaller in response to bright light

Physiology

Processes and functions of an organism

Glaucoma

Increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; causes damage to the optic nerve

Tarsal Plate

Dense, plate-like frame work with in the middle layer of each eyelid that gives the eyelids their firmness and shape. (also called tarsus)

Entropion

Inward turning of the rim of the eyelid

Corneal abrasion

An injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea

Internal Hordeolum

AKA internal stye; occurs when a meiboian gland becomes infected or inflamed.

Exophthalmos

Protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball Also called Proptosis

Fusion

The combining of images from the two eyes to form a single visual image

Anatomy

The structure of an organism

Eyelid

Movable, protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye. Contains 3 layers:
Outer layer- Skin
Middle layer- Tarsal plate, Orbicularis Oculi, Levator Palperae Superioris
Inner layer-Conjunctiva

Foreign Body Sensation

FBS. A feeling of eye irritation or grittiness.

Strabismus

A disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly because the eye muscles are unable to focus together

Globe

The eyeball

Vitreous

Jelly-like substance filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye

Structures of the eye

Cornea,Sclera,Anterior Chamber,Uveal Tract, Crystaline Lens,Vitreous, Retina,Visual Pathways

Trichiasis

Misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea

Rods

Rod-shaped retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

Conjunctiva

Mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball, except the cornea.

Corneal Ulcer

Lesion on the cornea left after an infection of or injury to the corneal epithelium

Anterior Chamber Angle

The junction of the cornea and the iris, from which aqueous humor leaves the eye (also called filtration angle)

Cornea

Clear membrane at the front of the globe covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Responsible for 60% of the eyes focusing power. Contains 5 layer:
Corneal Epithelium, Bowman's Membrane, Corneal Stroma, Descemet's Membrane, and Corneal Endothelium

Descemets Membrane

Basement membrane that lies between the corneal stroma and the endothelial layer of cornea

Corneal Endothelium

Inner layer of cornea, maintains corneal hydration and secrets Descemet's Membrane. Will not regenerate.

Bowmans Membrane

A layer of the cornea, located between the corneal epithelium and the corneal stroma, acts as an anchor for the corneal epithelium. Resistant to trauma/bacterial invasion, will not regenerate

Corneal Stroma

90% of corneal mass, contributes rigidity to the cornea.

Medial Rectus

Moves eye inward, Adduction.

Inferior Rectus

Moves eye down

Superior Rectus

Moves eye up

Lateral Rectus

Moves eye out, Abduction

Superior Oblique

Moves eye down and in

Ciliary Process

Epithelia tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secretes aqueous humor

Fornix

Juncture between palpebral conjunctiva and the bulbar conjunctiva, where the eyelid and the globe meet. (Also called Cul-de-sac)

Palpebral Conjunctiva

Membrane that lines the eyelids

Choroid

A highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera in the uveal tract. Provides nourishment to the retina

Prognosis

A prediction of the course of a disease

Photoreceptor

A light sensitive cell

Adnexa

Tissues and structures surrounding the eye; includes:
Orbit
Extraocular Muscles
Eyelids
Lacrimal Apparatus

Meibomian Gland

A gland that secretes the oily part of the tear film that lubricates the outer surface of the globe: located on the inner margin of the eyelid.

Crystalline Lens

Forty percent of the optical focusing system, immediately behind the iris, aka Lens

Trabecular Meshwork

Sponge-like structure that filter the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber and controls it's rate of flow to the Canal of Schlem.

Posterior Segment

Rear portion of the eye; includes the vitreous body and the retina

Anterior Segment

Front of the eye; from the front of the cornea to the back of the lens

Limbus

Junction between the sclera and the cornea

Optic Chiasm

Point behind the eyes in the brain where the two optic nerves merge and the axon fibers from the nasal retina of each eye cross to the opposite side

Aqueous Humor

Clear, transparent fluid that fills the anterior chamber

Sclera

Tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve

Nasolacrimal Duct

A duct that carries tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity

Lacrimal Sac

Holds tears that pass from the lacrimal canaliculi and empty in to the nasolacrimal duct

Accommodation

The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

Lateral Canthus

The point where the upper and lower eyelids meet at the temporal side

Cilia

Eyelashes

Canaliculus

Tubes (upper and lower) through which tears pass into the Lacrimal Sac

Punctum

Tiny opening on the upper and lower lid margins near the nose through which tears pass

Dacryocystitis

Inflammation of the lacrimal sac causing obstruction of the tube draining tears into the nose

Orbicularis Oculi

Circular muscle, in the middle layer of eye lid, that closes the eye as in winking, blinking

Lateral Geniculate Bodies

Part of the brain where optic fibers synapse to the optic radiations and transmit visual impulses

Axons

Long-fiber like portion of the ganglion cells that course over the surface of the retina and converge at the optic disc

Ganglion Cells

Type of retinal cells that accepts electric (nerve) impulses from the bipolar cells and send the impulses via axons through the optic disc to the brain

Canal of Schlemm

A structure which drains the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber after it has flowed through the trabecular meshwork

Lacrimal Gland

The gland that produces the watery substance making up the middle layer of the tear film; located in the lateral part of the upper lid

Bipolar Cells

A type of retinal cells that accepts electric (nerve) impulses from the photoreceptors and passes them to the ganglion cells

Zonule

A transparent fiber that supports the lens by attaching to the ciliary body

Synapse

The connection between nerves, where electric (nerve) impulses are transmitted

Palpebral Fissure

The almond shaped opening between the upper and lower eyelids

Medial Canthus

The point where the upper and lower eyelids meet on the nasal side

Visual Pathway

The route that is taken by light-generated nerve impulses after they leave the eye; also called the Retrobulbar visual pathway

Iris

The colored circle of tissue that controls the amount of light entering the eye by enlarging or reducing the size of it's aperture, the pupil.

Macula

Specialized area of the retina close to the center of the back of the eye that provides detailed central vision

Fovea

Center of the macula

Pupil

The opening in the center of the iris that dilates admitting more light, and constricts admitting less light

Presbyopia

Progressive loss of accommodative ability of the lens, due to the natural process of aging

Pigment epithelium

Outer layer of the retina; lies against the choroid

Ciliary Body

A band-like structure of muscle and secretory tissue that extends from the edge of the iris and encircles the inside of the sclera

Ciliary Muscle

Smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision capability

Lacrimal Apparatus

A structure of the eye that produce tears and the ducts that drain excess fluid from the front of the eyes into the nose. Including:tear film, lacrimal gland, upper and lower punctum, upper and lower canaliculus, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct

The eye as an optical System

Cornea, Iris, pupil, crystalline lens, vitreous, retina, and optic nerve

Uveal Tract

The pigmented layers of the eye including: Iris, ciliary body, and choroid, that contain the majority of the blood vessel supply (also called Uvea)

Dilator Muscle

The iris muscle that dilate the pupil in reduced light conditions; fibers from this muscle stretch from the pupil to the boundaries of the iris.

Visual Cortex

Area of the brain responsible for the initial conscious registration of visual information; the designation of electric (nerve) impulses from the retina

Bulbar conjunctiva

The tissue lining the globe up to the edge of the cornea

Optic Tract

The part of the brain between the optic chiasm and the lateral geniculate body

Levator Palpebrae

The muscle attached to the tarsal plate in the middle layer of the upper and lower eyelids, that raises the eyelid when it contracts

Amblyopia

-amblys "dulled" ops "eye"
-reduction in vision due to abnormal visual experience in early childhood
-most commonly caused by strabismus & asymmetric refractive error

Strabismus

Misaligned vision. Fovea may not be focused on the same object leading to diplopia.

Lateral rectus

Abducts, turn out

Medial rectus

Adducts, turns in

Blowout fracture

Fraxture in the floor of the orbit.

Orbit

Holds the globe. 

Lens

immediately behind the iris, 40% of focusing power.

Adnexa

Structures that protect & support globe.

Cornea

Clear membrane ot front of globe, 60% of focusing power

Iris

Controls amount of light that enters the eye

Superior rectus

Turns up

Inferior rectus

Turns down

Optic nerve

Carries electrical messages from retina to brain

Retina

inner lining of the back of the eye consisting of light sensitive cells which convert images to electrical impulses

Superior oblique

Intorsion, down & in

Inferior oblique

Extorsion, up & out

Pupil

opening in iris that allows light to enter eye

The ocular adnexa

tissues that surround the eye and protext and preserve the nomal functioning of the eyes. eyedids, conjunctiva the lacrimal apparatus, the orbit, and the extraocular muscles.

eyelids and conjunctiva

tissue that protects the outer portion of the eye from injury, excludes light, lubricates th efront surface of the eye. Composed of outer layers of skin, and inner layer of palpebral conjunctiva and the layer of fiberous tissue and muscle between upper and lower lids

palpebral fissure

elliptical opening btween upper and lower lids. 15 mm normal opening

medial cantus

inner junciton of lids.

lateral canthus

outer junction of lids.

plica semilunaris

the medial canthus contains folds of fleshy tissue. this is the deeper one.

caruncle

more visible fold

puncta

small openings to the drainage system on medial edge of lids

cilia

on anterior lid margin are hair follicles for the lashes. to sweep airborne particles away from the eye during a blink.

gray line

it divides the inner and outer portion of the lid margin.

meibomian glands

oil secreting glands.

tarsal plate

fiberous layer of lids. it gives teh lid its firmness

orbicularis oculi

a circular muscle that on contraction result in eye closure

Levator palpebrea superioris muscle

it attaches to the tarsal platee

oculomotor nerve

is the 3rd cranial nerve that controls a group of muscles

conjuctiva

is hte transulant mucous membrane that lines the iner surface of the lids.

palpebral conjunctiva

portion of conjunctiva on the lids

bulbar conjunctiva

conjunctiva on the surface of the eye.

Limbus

where bulbar conjuctivs ends and cornea begins.

fornix culdesac

junction of bulbar conjunctiva and palpebral conj. hordeolum stye acute infalation of a lash follicle that forms reddened lump near the lid margin.

blepharitis

diffuse inflamation of lid margin. over growth of bacteria.

Ecotropian

turnin out of the lid

entropian

inward turning of the lashes

ptosis

loss of function of levator muscle.

conjunctivitis

inflamation of conjunctiva pink eye

sub conjunctivial

hemorrhage blood vessel ruptures under the conjuctiva

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