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If you flex forward, what happens to your sacral sulcus?

Deepens

If you extend backward, what happens to your sacral sulcus?

Shallow

How does the base articualte with L5?

Lumbosacral joint

How does the apex articulate with coccygeus?

Sacrococcygeal joint

What are the passageways in the sacrum?

1. Sacral canal
2. Four bilateral foramina
3. Sacral hiatus

What passes through the sacral canal?

Sacral nerves from the cauda equina

What passes through the four bilateral foramen?

Passage of ventral and dorsal horns of 1st 4 sacral spinal nerves

What causes a defect of the sacral hiatus?

Defect formed by failure of laminal closure of 5th sacral closure

What is the sacroiliac joint? Describe both arms.

L or C shaped
Short upper arm (convex laterally)
Long lower arm (concave laterally)

At what vertebral level does the apex of the two arms of the SI connect?

S2 level

The SI articulation converges _____ and _____

inferiorly, posteriorly

What is the position of the lumoboscral facets?

BUM

Describe the form closure of the pelvis?

The way the pelvis, sacrum, and femurs articulate together
The whole sacrum is held in place with the other bones

Describe the forced closure of the pelvis?

Muscles and other forces compresses the sacrum together to stabilize it

Describe the form and forced closure of the pelvis?

When you put anatomy and forces together, this is a dynamic function

Describe the location of the sacral sulcus?

Distance from PSIS to sacral base (described as deep or shallows)

What are the 3 true ligaments between the innominates?

Posterior sacroiliac
Anterior sacroiliac
Interosseous sacoiliac

What are the 3 accessory ligaments?

Iliolumbar
Sacrospinous
Sacrotuberous: greater and lesser sciatic foramen

What are the suspensory arrangement between vertebra?

Supraspinous ligament
Anterior Longitudal ligament
Anterior and posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments

Describe the piriformis?

tightens to stabilize pelvis, opposite to leg in swing phase
Externally rotates, extends the thigh, abducts thigh with flexed hip
Innervated by S1/S2

Describe the ligaments restraining the anterior movement of the sacral movement?

Sacrospinous ligament
Sacrotuberous ligament

Describe the ligaments restraining the posterior, lateral, and axial movement of the sacral movement?

Anterior sacroiliac ligament
Posterior sacroiliac ligament
Interosseous sacroiliac ligament

What are the tenets of sacral motion?

Muscles are attached to the sacrum
Sacral motion is not caused by these muscles
No muscles are specific for SI motion

The motion at the SI joint results from muscular actions that move the ____ and ___

back, leg

The SI joint motion is a result of _____ forces acting on the sacrum

mechanical

What are the forces from above's effect on the SI joint?

Changes of position or center of gravity within the torso

What are the forces from below's effect on the SI joint?

Walking

Sacral motion occurs along axes. What are the 3 transverse axes? What are the two oblique axes

Superior Transverse
Middle Transverse
Inferior Transverse
Left oblique axis
Right oblique axis

The superior transverse axes lies at the level of:

S1/S2

The middle transverse axes lies at the level of

S2

The inferior transverrse axes lies at the level of:

inferior part of the inferior limb of the SI joint

The superior axis is ____ to the SI joint

posterior

The superior transverse axes does type of motion?

Flexes and extends with respiration
Nutation (flexion) and counternutation (extension) during craniosacral mechanics

The middle transverse axes does what type of motion?

involved in sacral postural flexion and extension

The inferior transverse axes does what type of motion?

Axis about the innominate rotation occurs

How is an oblique axes developed? what type of motions?

Motions occuring about a vertical and transverse sacral axis: rotation and sidebending

At what level of the SI joint is the middle transverse axes located?

Anterior convexity of the upper and lower limbs of the SI joint

What are the 4 types of sacral motion?

Dynamic
Respiratory
Inherent
Postural

Posterior rotation of the sacral based around the middle transverse is called

counternutation/extension

(no craniosacral involved here)

Forward rotation of the sacral base around the middle transverse axis is called:

nutation/flexion

(no craniosacral involved here)

Forward rotation of the sacral base around the superior transverse axis is called:

craniosacral extension/nutation

Posterior movement of the sacral base around the superior transverse axis is called

craniosacral flexion/counternutation

As your head extends (craniosacral extension), your sacrum around the superior transverse axis:

nutates (flexes)

As your head flexes, your sacrum at the posterior movement of the sacral base around the superior transverse axis:

counternutates (extends)

Why does your respiratory motion affect sacral motion?

Due to the attachment of the diaphragm to the L1-L2 left and L1-L3 right

With inhalation, lumbar lordosis ______ and sacral base moves _______

decreases/flatten
posterior: postural extension (sacrum moves back)

*think of pulling the spine up**

With exhalation, lumbar lordosis _____ and sacral base moves ______

increases
anteriorly: postural flexion

Sacrum moves _______ to lumbar spine (L5)

opposite

Mid-range extension of trunk you should have sacral _____ on the middle axis

counternutation

Mid-range flexion of trunk, you should have sacral _____ on the middle axis

nutation

What postural: middle transverse axis occurs with ____ and ______ according to anatomic nomeclature.

flexion and extension

In the postural: middle transverse axis, ____ occurs when the sacral base is moving anteriorly (nutation)

Flexion

In postural: middle transverse axis,______ occurs when sacral base is moving posteriorly (counternutation)

Extension

In middle transverse axis, if lumbar spine is in flexion, the sacrum is in ______

extension

In middle transverse axis, if lumbar spine is in extension, the sacrum is in _______

flexion

The inferior transverse axis allows for ______ of the ilia on the sacrum during walking

rotation

What is the inferior transverse axis is walking.

Iliosacral motion

How does dynamic motion occurs by placing ____ on one leg during the gait cycle.

weight

Unilateral lumbar sidebending engages _______ oblique axis

ipslateral

After unilateral sidebending to the left, left oblique axis, shifts weigh to the ___ SI joint

left

The sacrum rotates tilts forward on the ______ side and thus creating a _____ sacral sulcus

weight bearing side, deep

The leftward rotation of the right base about the left axis occurs during the swing phase of the ___ leg

right

The rightward rotation of the left base about the right axis occurs during the swing phase of the ____ leg.

left

Normal sacral motion during ambulation only involves nuetral to anterior positioning of the sacrum around these oblique axes. The sacrum does not go into _____ position.

posterior

Most somatic dysfunction in the sacrum involve _____ torsion about an oblique axes

anterior

_________ ______ may accentuate and retain portions of motion.

Somatic dysfunction

________ _______ ________ because muscles, connective tissue, and joints remain in positions that are normally a part of the physiologic motion but are dysfunctions when the body should have returned to a neutral position but did not do so

Physiologic Somatic Dysfunction

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